A massive stroke of the brain
Diseases such as a brain stem stroke is a very relevant medical and social problem today, as every year its incidence is increasing and mortality of the population it takes the second place after myocardial infarction. In many ways, the effects of stroke and its prognosis depend on the localization of the pathological focus, the causes of stroke, its type, volume of brain tissue damage and timely medical care.
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What is a massive stroke, its types
The term massive stroke mean the defeat of the arteries that feed the brain, regardless of the nature. It suffers from the large area of nervous tissue that often extends to the entire hemisphere, and sometimes two. Accordingly, all the functions of the damaged parts of the brain are lost, which is incompatible with the full functioning of the body, and often with life.
In most cases, extensive lesions of the brain is associated with pathology of the carotid arteries and their main branches. This situation most often occurs when
Causes and risk factors
The symptoms of a massive stroke
Clinical signs of a massive stroke depend on which hemisphere is affected and the type of stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic). But, as a rule, all such cases occur very hard with severe symptoms, because the diagnosis of labour is.
The main symptoms of a massive stroke:
- impaired consciousness, usually in coma of varying depth, but it is possible and easy stunning;
- sudden headache and dizziness, with subarachnoid hemorrhage there is the characteristic feeling of a blow to the head;
- vegetative symptoms – cold sweats, pallor, facial flushing, dry mouth, palpitations, shortness of breath, fear of death, nausea, vomiting;
- complete paralysis of one side of the body and muscles of the face (with the defeat of the right hemisphere suffers from a left half of the body, and the stroke left – right);
- sensory disorders on the opposite side of the body from brain damage (lost all kinds of sensitivity arise paresthesia);
- speech disorder (aphasia) after a stroke in the left hemisphere;
- memory lapses;
- problems with vision, hearing, olfaction, orientation;
- impaired coordination and balance;
- mental disorders.
Often due to the fact that there comes immediate loss of consciousness and coma, sometimes tubal immediately suspected a stroke, because in this case, it is impossible problems with speech, motor skills, sensibility, vision. Will help simple test: necessary to assess the condition of the pupils and their reaction to light. If one pupil wider than the other and does not react by narrowingat the light, then, most likely, the victim has a stroke.
The consequences of a massive stroke
As already mentioned, a massive stroke is accompanied by a high risk of death. But, if a person managed to survive, and all medical care was provided in full, the consequences of a stroke of the extensive nature of the following:
- hemiparesis of the right or left side of the body, sides of the face;
- loss of sensation on the opposite side from a stroke;
- loss of ability to speak or understand addressed speech (motor and sensory aphasia);
- blurred vision smell, hearing different nature;
- violation of swallowing (bulbar syndrome) and paralysis of the muscles of the palate;
- memory loss, inability to learn new information;
- violations of cognitive brain functions, the ability to think logically, to draw conclusions, communication;
- persistent impairment of coordination and balance;
- epileptic seizures;
- mental disorders;
- the development of a vegetative state (brain death).
It is important to remember! Sorry, but full recovery of brain functions in a broad stroke does not happen. If you make the effort, it is possible to reduce the degree of the manifestations of existing deviations, but to get rid of them completely fail.
Suspected massive stroke possible according to the clinical symptoms, anamnesis data (risk identification). But to confirm the diagnosis will help are additional methods like MRI and CT scan of the brain. In each case, the survey program includes methods that allow to identify comorbidities, as well as identify complications and to eliminate them.
Principles of treatment
Treatment if the stroke must begin as soon as possible and to be differentiated. The patient must be immediately hospitalized in a specialized hospital. Usually treatment if the stroke is in intensive care, as a person often requires a connection to the life-support system.
Conducted combat cerebral edema, correction of respiratory and cardiac rhythm, disorders of homeostasis, normalization
Care person, who had a massive stroke
After the acute period of disease has passed, and the patient and the doctors managed to overcome death, you need to provide complete care post-stroke patient. As a rule, people who had suffered a massive stroke, in need of constant care, as they in most cases remain bedridden for the rest of my life. To provide such care can like family and care workers in special rehabilitation institutions.
The main areas of caring for someone undergoing an extensivestroke:
- fighting with the sores;
- prevention of formation of muscle contractures;
- therapeutic rehabilitation exercises;
- breathing exercises;
- prevention of congestive pneumonia;
- prevention of thromboembolic complications due to prolonged immobilization;
- prevention of recurrent stroke;
- control of blood pressure;
- a careful hygiene of the bed;
- regular feeding according to the recommended diet;
- ensuring the patient is taking all medications prescribed by your doctor;
- rehabilitation the language skills of a person;
- social and psychological adaptation.
Video about how to prevent the development of stroke:
A massive stroke of the brain is a very serious disease that causes high mortality and severe disabilities. It is therefore very important to prevent such walking events and actively engage in primary prevention, it is especially important for people at risk.