Stem stroke: the reasons, the Outlook for a recovery
Stem stroke, as the name implies, is localized in the trunk, connecting the head and spinal brain. This name does not indicate the nature of the stroke, only its location. However, the stem stroke can be as
The features of pathology
Of all the possible localizations of the stroke, the stem is the most dangerous, as it affects the most important centers of the CNS. This stroke has a high mortality, although, of course, is not always fatal. The opportunity to return to a normal life after this stroke will depend not only on timely medical help but also on the nature of the lesion.
The most common problem with the occurrence of stroke is dysphagia – impairment of swallowing. As a result of its appearance, a person loses the ability to eat normally and forced to go on intravenous nutrition. In the most severe cases, any meals or liquids can cause aspiration pneumonia in the presence of food in the path of the breath, there begins to develop an infection is virtually untreatable and often leads to death.
Another characteristic feature of such localization of the pathology is called dysarthria – impairment of speech, which is often accompanied by violation of the swallowing function. This is called bulbar syndrome and occurs in about half of the cases.
Stem stroke causes of dizziness and disruption of normal orientation in space. Patients who have suffered a stroke, losing the ability to move independently. In the process of restoring this function returns slowly, and some weeks the patient is forced to walk with someone's help.
How is stem stroke?
Head brains and spinal cord are connected to each other by so-called barrel through which the body gets "team". Stalowa when the stroke affects the cerebellum, midbrain and thalamic region. And since this is where all the main channels of the nervous system responsible for motor, speech, respiratory function, the location of the center of stroke is extremely dangerous. In addition, there are centers responsible for circulation and thermoregulation.
If the stroke occurs in the barrel resulting from hematoma blocks oxygen, which needs to feed the cells. As a result, they atrophy, leading either to substantial violations, or for a full cessation of work of the internal organs.
The treatment-stem stroke
Treatment of any stroke should be in the hospital. Depending on how difficult will be the condition of the patient and what was stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic), it is placedeither the chamber at the Department of neurology or immediately to the intensive care unit.
The main symptom of the condition is the presence of consciousness. If the patient is unconscious or in a coma, the patient is placed in intensive care.
With the further emergence of bulbar syndrome, which leads to swallowing and suppression of the function of speech, the patient is transferred either intravenously or install a tube that passes through the nasal passage into the stomach. However, the installation of such a probe need not only in disorders of swallowing and speech, but also at the confluence of the patient in a coma. Since the nutrients required by the body regularly, a person in a coma is not able to feed themselves, doctors have to give the patient food in this way.
The installation of the probe can be great alternative to intravenous nutrition, but often they are used together.
After that, the patient will regain consciousness and be able to start rehabilitation measures to correct or restore swallowing and speech function with him will deal with the speech therapist. If the coma was not, then the recovery should start as soon as possible.
However, for different types of stroke require different approaches. As you know, stroke is divided into ischemic and hemorrhagic.
Stem ischemic stroke
This is the most dangerous stroke, which often leads to death. According to statistics of causes of death, it is in second place. Ischemic stroke known as cerebral infarction.
It leads to extensive damage of brain tissue because of ischemia there is a disruption of normal hematopoiesis and blood circulation. The nutrients cease to flow to certain parts of the brain, which leads to tissue necrosis in the patient area.
Most often, an ischemic stroke occurs as a result of the running of atherosclerosis. In addition, the cause may be diabetes, hypertension or rheumatism. Ischemic stroke can be quite long, and it is slow. If the patient appeared weak, deteriorating motor coordination, dizziness are accompanied by nausea, this may be the first signal of ischemia in the brain.
Thus, the ischemic stroke in its early stages can be prevented.
Stem hemorrhagic stroke
If you experience
The symptoms stem stroke
Well-marked disorders of speech and motor functions, the patient complaining of nausea and constant dizziness. Also have autonomic disorders: redness or paleness of the skin, sudden changes in body temperature, profuse sweating. Increases pressure, pulse quickens. Next to thesesymptoms are added to the impairment of respiratory function: the patient breathes hoarsely, rarely, inhale or exhale are hard.
In rare cases, there is a locked man syndrome: paralysis of the limbs, but the patient remains conscious and is able to assess his condition. In this case, a person can take an active part in their own rehabilitation.
If you experience a stroke, two out of three die in the first two days. This usually happens because of ignorance of the signs of a stroke and delayed access to medical care. However, if the time to render to the patient expert help, the prognosis can be positive, especially if the stroke happened in a person under the age of 30 years.
Particularly important is that at the onset of symptoms of stroke to seek medical help is necessary for the first two hours. Even the most minor symptoms can quickly develop to the stage where the patient is already nothing will help.
Predictions of recovery after a stroke
Speech disorders due to stroke occurs in about 30% of all patients. Speech becomes slurred and quiet, but the help of speech therapist allows you to correct this problem. If there was a syndrome of the trapped person, and the patient can only control the movement of the eyelids, although it remains fully conscious, the prognosis is poor.
Violation of swallowing function is a common symptom of stem stroke, and is found in 70% of cases. Accurately predict whether function is restored or not at all. Special techniques allow only to teach such patients to swallow pureed food.
For violation of motor function of the forecast, overall pleasant. However, rehabilitation should begin as soon as possible, because over time, the ability to restore the falls. In half of the cases a full recovery occurs during the year. However, after this period, the restoration of motor function is almost impossible.
Problems with coordination, and dizziness is one of the main signs of lesions of the brain stem. With timely medical intervention these symptoms are completely gone.
If respiratory failure can cause serious difficulties: in 2/3 of cases the patient remains confined to a ventilator (artificial lung ventilation). If the respiratory center was able to retain it is destroyed completely, then the patient may experience some short term stop breathing, especially during sleep.
Thus, the stem stroke requires not only long-term treatment, but the full attention of his family. For many years people who suffered a stroke, becomes unable to care for themselves.