The symptoms and treatment of brain tumors
A brain tumor is a large group of different tumors that develop from nerve tissue of the brain, its membranes and blood vessels. They can be divided into malignant and benign, but such a division is rather conditional, as any intracranial education are hazardous to human health.
Causes of neoplasms of the brain
You should immediately specify that the immediate cause of the formation of intracerebral tumors is not established today, like most cancers. A major role in their education assign genetic predispositions, radiation, slow viral infections, exposure to toxic factors constant electromagnetic radiation.
- childhood and old age;
- occupational hazards;
- negative environmental factors;
- some health problems (patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, people after a course of radiolucency or chemotherapy, recipients of donor organs).
It is important to remember! These factors are not the direct reason for the formation of brain tumors, they only give impetus to its development when there is a genetic predisposition.
The types of brain tumors
There are several varieties of tumor lesions of the brain tissue, which differ in origin, histological structure, degree of aggressiveness, location, size.
Depending on the causes of brain tumors are:
- primary – develops directly into the cranial cavity;
- secondary, or metastatic, which inherently relate to the metastasis of primary cancers, e.g., leukemia blood cancer of the liver, lungs, kidneys, etc.
Primary tumors are both benign and malignant, secondary – only malignant.
Depending on the lesion are:
- of the cerebral hemispheres (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital lobe);
- subcortical structures;
- the brain stem;
- of the cerebellum;
- pituitary area;
- 3 and 4 ventricles.
Depending on the origin:
- Education that grow out of the neuroectodermal tissue (directly from the substance of the brain, astrocytoma, glioblastoma, oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma, ependymoma, neurinoma.
- Education, which develop from the membranes and vessels of brain – meningioma, and angiosarcoma.
- Education Turcica (pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma).
Stage of brain cancer
Common in Oncology practice, the TNM classification does notused to denote the stage of cancer of the brain. Despite the fact that primary tumor formation does not give metastases, but any of them can be malignant. The point is that education, which increases and compresses the surrounding neural tissue and is accompanied by severe complications. And it can be a direct cause of death of the person.
Depending on the grade 4 stage isolated brain tumors:
Symptoms of neoplastic diseases of the brain
At the beginning of the disease, nonspecific signs and suspect a brain tumor difficult. But with the growth of intracranial education all the symptoms are worse there are particular focal neurological signs, which give the opportunity to start sighting survey.
All manifestations of intracranial education can be divided into 2 groups:
- cerebral symptoms, which are caused by increased pressure inside the skull;
- focal signs are caused by lesions of certain areas of brain tissue.
General cerebral signs
As a rule, the cerebral symptoms appear first and precede the development of focal neurological symptoms. But when the tumor is localized in the cerebral cortex, the early signs are focal signs and brain appear later with the growth of education and the increase in pressure in the cranial cavity.
Common cerebral symptoms:
To establish the diagnosis of a brain tumor difficult. But first, the disease should be suspected in this patient complaints, and ophthalmologic examination by a consultant neurologist. To confirm the diagnosis is used:
Principles of treatment
Complications and prognosis
A brain tumor is a life-threatening disease, which is accompanied by a high degree of lethality. Also among the complications it is worth noting the possible consequences of the operation, which depend on the region of the brain, which carried out the intervention. May experience any neurological disorder (blindness, aphasia, paralysis, dementia, psychiatric disorders, etc.).
Modern methods of treatment of brain tumors has greatly increased patient survival and their quality of life after therapy. The prognosis of the brain tumor depends on the type, location and size of the tumor, stage of the process, the time exposed to the diagnosis and treatment methods applied. With some types (ependymoma, oligodendroglioma) five-year survival rate is 86%, which is not malignant tumors. For example, five-year survival rate for glioblastoma is only 14%.