Meningioma: symptoms, treatment, signs and diagnosis
Meningioma – a benign tumor, which develops from a special hard shell located around the brain and around the spinal cord of the brain. This is one of the most common among other
Classification of tumours
- 1 degree – benign meningioma.
- Stage 2 – atypical meningioma.
- Stage 3 – malignant meningioma.
One of the most serious causes of such tumors can be radiation, especially if exposure was obtained in high dose over a short period of time, or if small doses of irradiated people for a long time. So everyone who works with radioactive substances, it is necessary to observe personal protection and to use more iodized products, and special products, created to cleanse the body from radicals and heavy nuclides.
The symptoms of the tumor
The manifestations of tumors depends on several factors, including the size and localization of tumors. In the early stages of tumor development people often just don't notice symptoms (pain syndrome is absent, other manifestations of the same is not felt. However, with the development of tumors appear the symptoms of focal lesions of the brain or spinal cord. The first symptoms, such as slight visual disturbances (double vision, occurs a flashing "flies" or appear blind spots). As possible serious violations of the hearing up to complete loss, there
Diagnosis of tumors
Meningioma is an insidious tumor, because without special methods of investigation to diagnose it. Moreover, at the initial stage of the disease and it can not be detected. Moreover, its symptoms it is similar to several other similar diseases, and, unfortunately, it is quite often confused with other tumors arising within the skull. The main feature of meningiomas is the effects of pressure on different parts of the brain by the growing tumour, which can disrupt coordination, sharply reduced vision, hearing and memory.
In order to diagnose the disease, you need to visit a neurologist, who will conduct a full examination reflexes and sensitivity of the patient. For this selected special tests that allow to assess the extent of damage to particular functions of the brain or spinal cord. After that, the patient is sent on to additional, more accurate studies that will determine the cause of these symptoms.
Among these methods for the detection of meningiomas, as a rule, used x-ray, CT and MRI. The last two of these methods allow you toa complete picture of the disease and clearly display all brain tissue in layers. This allows to assess the degree of severity of the disease, to detect the location of the tumor and determine its size. In those cases if a meningioma is not detected even in MRI, injection of contrast medium, which provides the most crisp and clear image.
In some cases, when the tumor has been removed, the patient biopsy sample of tissue, which gives to understand, is managed to get rid of meningiomas. Biopsy allows to identify the nature of the tumor and to develop tactics of further treatment.
Methods of treatment for the meningioma
Typically, complete removal of such tumors requires surgery together with radiation therapy. Chemistry with this disease has no effect, as the tumor is benign and does not require such drastic measures. However, if neither operation nor radiation therapy was not given a satisfactory result, your doctor may also prescribe chemotherapy.
Approach to the treatment of meningiomas can be different and depends not only on the size and stage of development of neoplasms, but also from locations. In addition, not every clinic radiation therapy and not all have equipment that allows to perform fine operation to remove tumors of the spinal cord.
In any case, first is the treatment aimed at reducing the edema surrounding the tumor tissue and the elimination of the inflammatory processes in the brain. For this purpose, as a rule, the doctor prescribes drugs based on corticosteroids. If the meningioma is accompanied by seizures, anticonvulsants are used. If the meningioma arose in the path of circulation of CSF, surgery is performed to restore its normal flow.
As meningioma is almost always a benign neoplasm, it does not have metastasis, penetrating into other parts of the affected organ, has clear boundaries and therefore can be cut in a single operation. If the tumor is situated superficially, the operation brings complete cure. The first step in the process of surgical intervention is craniotomy – opening the skull at the tumor site, and the main goal is its complete destruction. Complications may be caused by deep penetration of the tumor into the surrounding brain tissue.
Surgical intervention is allowable to use only in case, if the tumor is available for operation and no risk of tissue damage.
Radiation that can cause tumors, is applied for the treatment of suchtumors. Generally, the therapy requires a minimum of 5 sessions, during which the tumor is continuously irradiated in one position. In severe cases, irradiation is performed within a few weeks, and complication can become dermatitis during treatment may experience baldness of the irradiated part of the head.
Radiation therapy is used if surgery is not possible due to the characteristic location of the tumor. Now this treatment is slowly but surely losing ground, giving way to more modern developments in this field. Increasingly for the treatment of meningiomas used stereotactic radiation therapy, which is safer and more effective.
Stereotactic radiation therapy allows irradiation of the tumor from different angles, using a special technology. The tumor itself in a short time receives a particularly high dose of radiation, while the brain tissue surrounding the tumor, are practically.
A method of treatment of tumors is applied if surgery patient, it is impossible. Radiosurgery is painless and therefore requires no anesthesia or anesthesia. To prepare the patient for surgery also is not required, and the postoperative period, in which case surgical intervention may last up to six months in case of complications, is completely absent. Thus, after this treatment, the patient can immediately go home. Of course, the effect of treatment does not occur on the first day of treatments may take up to three weeks of therapy. As radiosurgery is not used for tumors whose size exceeds 35 mm.