The types and forms of hematoma of the brain
Hematoma of the brain — a severe emergency condition that about 40% of cases leads to death. Forecast in this case, it is difficult to do, you need to analyze the size and location of hematoma, the circumstances and the remoteness of its receipt. Another, equally important factor is the promptness of obtaining medical care.
How dangerous is a hematoma of the brain?
Hematoma – the medical term for easy bruising, which can appear from hitting anywhere. That's only bruised feet or hands rarely leads to dangerous consequences. A bit painful bruising resolves in a week without a trace.
But if the hematoma is formed in the tissues of the brain, much more complicated. This delicate and sensitive organ encased in the hard shell of the skull, and even a small foreign object compresses it. Due to the deformation interferes with the normal operation of its centers, which may cause various and serious consequences.
A hematoma usually is formed after brain injury, other injuries or some diseases. Thus, the severity of the consequences is the sum of these two circumstances.
A little about the structure of the brain
The brain is a complex organ, which is protected by several shells:
- Soft shell. They fits directly to the brain, penetrates into all the folds and furrows. This spongy tissue is a network of vessels that nourish it.
- Arachnoid sheath. It tightly covers the brain without entering the furrow. Because of this, between the arachnoid and soft shells is formed by multiple spaces-tanks. Subarachnoid space filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
- The hard shell. It is formed of dense connective tissue, a kind of periosteum, which is rich in nerve fibers. It is responsible for painful sensation because brain tissue does not have nerve endings. The subdural space filled with serous fluid.
Thus, we can distinguish several types of hematomas of the brain, depending on, exactly where they happened.
Types of hematomas of the brain
There are many factors that determine the severity and form of a hematoma. And chief among them is the size. There are several types:
- Small. Hematoma volume not more than 50 milliliters. As a rule, dissolve under the influence of conservative therapy and do not require surgical intervention.
- Average. Volume, from 50 to 100 milliliters. Forecast and definition of schema therapy in this case depends on the exact location of the hematoma.
- Big. More than 100 milliliters. The larger the hematoma, the worse the prognosis.
But in addition to the hematoma volume matter its location. Hemorrhagedirectly in brain tissue are called interaxillary. Divided into several types: intraparenchymatous (in the parenchyma), intraventricular, vnutricerepnae.
All the other bruises are called interaxillary and are divided into three categories according to localization:
- Epidural. Located above the Dura.
- Subdural. Located between the solid and the arachnoid membranes.
- Subarachnoid. Localized in the subarachnoid space beneath the arachnoid membrane.
In addition, there is another graduation, taking into account the time and intensity of the growth of the ghosts:
Sharp. Symptoms are detected immediately after injury, but no later than 3 days.Subacute. The intensity of the growth of the symptoms below, they appear in a period from 3 to 21 days.Chronic. A rare form of intracerebral hematoma, when it is limited to the capsule, does not change in size or growing very slowly and manifests itself after a considerable period of injury – not less than 21 days.
Causes of hematoma of the brain
The most obvious and common cause of the appearance of hematomas of the brain – head injury. Heavy blows received during a fall in a street fight in car accidents is the most obvious but not the only causes. There are a number of diseases and conditions in which it may develop this condition:
- Brain tumors, including cancer.
- Vascular disease: aneurysms, malformations.
- Diseases associated with inflammation of blood vessels (periarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus).
Epidural hematoma of the brain
This is the most "external" form of a hematoma of the brain. Bleeding occurs in the space between the skull and the hard brain membrane. In most cases, such injuries occur when the impact occurs on a relatively small area: a blow to the head during the fight, falling on the stone, stair, door jamb, and so on. The amount of bleeding may vary from 30 to 300 ml, with an average of about 100, but the amount depends on the severity and prognosis.
For this type of injury is consistent with the so-called "lucid interval". In this case, after a traumatic brain injury should loss or confusion, then it is completely clear. But after a while symptoms persist, up to loss of consciousness and coma. But in some cases a light period may not be.
The rest of the signs are the same:
- Confusion or loss of consciousness.
- Different size of pupils.
- Loss of reaction of pupils to light.
- The increased heart rate.
- Flushed face.
Subdural hematoma headbrain
Hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space
Subarachnoid hematoma of the brain
Hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space can occur on the background of traumatic brain injury and spontaneously, for example after rupture of the aneurysm. More rare causes – sickle-cell anemia (a blood disorder that occurs blacks), cocaine, pathology blood clotting.
The consequence is hemorrhage into the subarachnoid space, which increases the amount of cerebrospinal fluid. This increases intracranial pressure and leads to the formation of blood clots. In the future this may be the cause of inflammation of the surrounding tissues.
The symptoms of this condition are similar to subdural hematoma:
First aid for hematoma of the brain
Hematoma of the brain – a condition requiring immediate hospitalization and treatment. If you suspect that you or your loved ones after a traumatic brain injury developed this condition, you need to consult your doctor, do not delay another minute.
First aid in this case is to lay the victim so that his head was above the trunk, to ensure peace and fresh air and call emergency.
It is very important to monitor the health of the person undergoing a traumatic brain injury or even a mild blow to the head. If he had headaches, a feeling of nausea, vomiting, loss or confusion, muscle rigidity, the difference in diameter of the pupils, or their reactions to light, then medical help should contact as soon as possible.