Arachnoiditis of the brain
Arachnoiditis is an inflammation in the Dura – arachnoid or, in other words, spider. It can develop because of infection (more than half of patients) and head trauma (approximately one third of all patients with arachnoiditis). There are other cases of arachnoiditis, but the reason for its development has not been elucidated. With its low prevalence (3-5% of patients of neurological hospitals are sick it is arachnoiditis) most often it is diagnosed in children. The reason for this large number of "children's" infectious diseases, neglect of hygiene and temperature. As a consequence, lethargy and drowsiness,
There are several reasons for the development of arachnoiditis, occurring most often:
- A complication of a common infection – appears as a complication of current measles, pneumonia and even ordinary flu;
- A complication of a focal infection is most likely to occur with otitis media, sinusitis, tonsillitis and others;
- Complication encephalitis – also known as arachnoideum;
- The complication of myelitis of any kind – then this inflammation is called arachnophilia.
All other cases of the disease have on traumatic brain injury.
We should also say about how soon the patient has the first signs of inflammation of the arachnoid of the brain. This process is very slow, the first mild symptoms are noticeable only after six months, and the maximum can be formed up to two years. The minimum period which begins after the development of inflammation – a little less than two weeks after the first signs of an infectious disease or from the time of injury, only about 10-12 days. This is especially true of brain injuries – yet the injury is "fresh" signs of poor health are to her. Only a few months later, when on its place are formed spikes, will begin it symptoms of arachnoiditis. That is why it is so important and duly receive the proper treatment.
The development of arachnoiditis
Fortunately, the arachnoiditis of the brain can not develop by itself. It requires special conditions – must be infection-pathogen, toxins, even a small swelling of the brain, problems with the circulation of blood and lymph. Thus, depending on the location of affected area and the nature of the occurrence, and the arachnoiditis are distinguished:
- Cystic with cyst;
- Adhesive – connection of different parts of the brain with suppurative adhesions;
- Adhesive-cystic – with the combination of these two factors;
- Cerebral are distinguished by the location of arachnoiditis of the posterior cranial fossa, convexital, cerebellopontine angle, basal optiganally;
- Spinal – also by locationinflammation;
- Acute – a disease in the period of exacerbation, with a maximum manifestation of all symptoms;
- Subacute disease in a period of decline of symptoms, towards a period of rest or even recovery;
- Chronic disease is a long stage, from a period of rest could worsen.
To recognize arachnoiditis, not having medical education, it is extremely difficult. Each of the subtypes of disease has its own symptoms, which may combine features of many other lesions of the brain. Therefore, it is impossible to put a diagnosis on their own and to self-medicate, it can be extremely dangerous.
But the main feature of any arachnoiditis headache. It can be strong or mild, but it is always there. Overvoltage, overheating, overcooling can cause a gain, and the peak starts vomiting. The patient tires easily, is weak physically, has a changeable mood. Also almost always disturbed sleep, and lack of sleep is caused confusion and lethargy.
Cerebral arachnoiditis in the period of exacerbation expressed moderate headache in the head "presses" or "bursting", there is nausea, with vomiting (not always), the patient stalking of vertigo. Aggravation may also provoke serious physical exertion and mental strain.
Convexital arachnoiditis can cause seizures from light shaking of one part of the body to a generalized (complete) fit to faint. Also characterized by neurological disorders.
Quite rare optiganally arachnoiditis causes a decrease in vision. It can occur in both eyes or only one, is suffering from the fundus, can atrophy the optic nerve, leading to blindness. At the initial stage, the disease manifests itself through the double vision or "floaters." There are other manifestations of diabetes, obesity and other adverse metabolic disorders. He appears after diseases of the sinuses, sore throat, syphilis, and severe head injuries.
With the defeat of the brain in the posterior cranial fossa, the headache is quite intensive, sometimes increasing. The reason is
Treatment of arachnoiditis of the brain
The diagnosis is made after examination by a neurologist and thorough studies using computed tomography or pneumoencephalography. Often doctors prescribe a full course of examination, including electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging to be completely sure that it's not a brain tumor. Because there is a risk of arachnoiditis confused with another disease of the brain, is very careful to treat the diagnosis only on symptoms or by usingonly one research method.
The acute inflammation is treated with antibiotics with penicillin in moderate doses.
In the subacute period and the period of rest in chronic arachnoiditis need to get rid of excess fluids and swelling, but because the drugs are assigned dehydrating – for example, glycerol or furosemide. Also we need the swelling to disappear, and toxins – output, which designate lidaza aloe, vitamins. Can prescribe and stimulants with iodine supplements.
Of course, that, in addition to the above, prescribers, relieving unpleasant symptoms. It is not only pain, but also drugs that improve the work of the senses.
Among the procedures is dominated by iodine electrophoresis, if there are convulsions – seizure drugs. Is necessary also effectively to treat the infection, especially alopecia (otitis, sinusitis). The worst prognosis of the appearance of the cyst – in this case you need the help of neurosurgeons.
The prognosis of arachnoiditis
Unfortunately, rarely are complications to the body without a trace. In time some arachnoiditis practically does not bear threat of life, only
Prevention of arachnoiditis
Complication of infection can be prevented if timely detect infectious diseases and to effectively deal with them. Foci of infection must be suppressed as early as possible, do not carry disease "on their feet", expecting that it will go away. Self also often leads to the development of inflammation, so do not neglect the treatment to the doctor and hospital holidays. By itself, the prevention of infectious diseases is also very important – are not sufficiently supercooled, take vitamins and follow simple rules when communicating with patients, use of precautionary measures during epidemics of colds, wash your hands often to not ever be faced with this unpleasant inflammation.
With regard to traumatic brain injury, you can protect yourself is hard enough, but possible. Basic preventive prescriptions are timely treatment in trauma and the correct diagnosis, then you need to accurately follow your doctor's instructions. The treatment is carried out on time and in full, reliably prevents the appearance of inflammation.
A relapse is possible if often to be in a noisy environment, to experience rapid changes in atmospheric pressure, e.g. when lifting to greater heights. Especially difficult is the first year after treatment – need to take increased precautions to avoid infection and not get infected. It is best to spend this time on various ways to strengthen the immune system: the visit to the immunologist, vitamins, light physical activityand regular walks, sView the air, along with proper nutrition.