Vegetative-vascular dystonia (VSD): causes, symptoms, methods of diagnosis and treatment
Vegetative-vascular dystonia (VSD), or neurocirculatory dystonia (NDCs) is a complex disorder with multiple causative factors, which can develop dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, which regulates internal organs and blood vessels. Also, this disease can be found under the name of “cardioneurozy”, “vegetarian”, which shows the relationship between the VSD and symptoms of autonomic nervous system.
Although most doctors and does not recognize the existence of such a diagnosis and for the disease of VSD she did not think, but at IBC you can find a category F45.3, which combines all of the above diagnoses. However, for patients with vegetative-vascular dystonia becomes a real challenge because the disease has a lot of options and painful symptoms that significantly affects quality of life. But its duration is not affected, has a favourable prognosis and benign course.
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The autonomic nervous system (Autonomous) is part of the national Assembly of the organism (a complex of Central and peripheral structures), which regulate the activity of internal organs, endocrine glands, blood and lymph vessels. Performs a very important role in maintaining homeostasis of the internal environment of the body and is involved in the adaptation to new environmental conditions. The Autonomous activity of the NA does not depend on the will and desire of man. For example, you cannot make your heart beat faster at will, and intestinal peristalsis to suspend.
The ANS controls all the processes of life:
- the heartbeat and the level
Causes of VSD
The true reasons why developing IRR until today not been established. This is a polietiologic disorder.
Factors that can provoke the development of VSD:
- some models of human behavior;
- hereditary-constitutional features of the organism;
- certain habits and social conditions of life;
- features power;
- the abuse of alcohol;
- insufficient or excessive physical activity;
- acute and chronic stress situations;
- infectious diseases;
- periods of hormonal changes the body: pregnancy, abortion, puberty, preklimaktericheskom period;
- diseases of endocrine organs;
- the negative impact of environmental factors (noise, vibration, elevated temperature, hazardous substances, radiation);
- adverse working conditions;
- diseases of the national Assembly, head injury.
Most experts agree that the root cause of VSD are emotional turmoil and neuroticdisorders and dysfunction of the autonomic NS is a secondary manifestation of somatoform disorders.
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Symptoms and variants of course of VSD
The main distinguishing feature of vegetative-vascular dystonia from other diseases of the internal organs is the absence of organic pathological changes a detailed examination, but at the same time, patients have complaints that often create the impression of a serious and dangerous disease, it is possible to clearly see the discrepancy between the large number of complaints to the objective state of the patient. Moreover, the complaints do not refer to one system of bodies, as in organic diseases, and at the same time there are violations of the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, etc.
Due to such features of VSD can masquerade as any pathology. For example, a person can go for years to treat coronary heart disease, but in fact he cardioneurozy. But, unfortunately, there are opposite cases, when the doctor, not fully understanding, exposes the diagnosis of VSD, missing serious pathology of heart. Thus, the diagnosis of VSD must be diagnosed off, that is, it can be set only once according to the data of additional methods of examination the patient will not be observed any pathological abnormalities.
Symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia is very diverse, and for convenience they are grouped into separate syndromes.
This is the most common type of disorders in VSD. Certain components of cardiac syndrome present in different degrees of severity in all patients. Option vegetative-vascular dystonia with a predominance of cardiac symptoms called VSD on cardial type. The most common such symptoms of cardiac syndrome:
- Cardialgia – pain in the heart area. Pain can be very diverse. Most (98%) the patients complain of constant, aching and oppressive pain in the heart. Some may notice a more intense and burning pain that resembles angina and even a heart attack. Cardialgia with VSD worried man at rest and after exercise (when IBS pain occurs during physical activity).
- Fluctuations AD. There are 2 options –
Crises in VSD and first aid
VSD is a chronic disease with alternating periods of remission and exacerbation. But sometimes patients can develop autonomic crises, which require special attention and urgent care. Such a dystonia is regarded as heavy. Crisis can provoke a stressful situation, exercise, change of weather conditions, diseases and infections, periodsthe menstrual cycle in women.
It is characterized by sudden headache, unpleasant sensations in the heart, increased blood pressure, numbness and cold extremities, increased motor activity, tremor of limbs, a sharp pale skin, fever, palpitations. The attack ends as suddenly as it had begun. At the end of the patients report increased the allocation of the amount of light urine.
For the relief of sympathoadrenal crisis apply obzidan, selexen, droperidol, amiodarone, reglan vomiting.
It is characterized by dizziness, feeling of heaviness in the head, a sharp General weakness, increased sweating, hyperventilation, nausea, discomfort in the upper abdomen, diarrhea, decrease in blood pressure, a rare pulse. There is no feeling of fear, only anxiety. After the seizure, a state of General weakness of body and weakness.
For the relief of vaginalnogo crisis used seduksen, with bradycardia atropine, if gipotonii – cardiamin, hypoglycemia – 40% glucose.
Sometimes there are mixed crises, which include the symptoms described 2 options.
As already mentioned, the VSD is a diagnosis of exclusion. Because its diagnosis requires all of the optional methods, which allow to exclude organic pathology. Need a General examination of the patient, consult a neurologist, cardiologist, gastroenterologist and endocrinologist. Conduct a full cardiological examination: laboratory tests, cholesterol, ECG, heart ultrasound, test with load, halter ECT and blood pressure. Also prescribed x-rays of the chest, ultrasound examination of abdominal cavity organs, kidneys and thyroid, fibrogastroscopy, colonoscopy for gastrointestinal complaints. Determine the level of thyroid hormone, as its pathology is accompanied by similar symptoms.
If in the course of all additional tests, no pathology found, then the patient exhibited diagnosis of vegetative-vascular dystonia, in accordance with:
- the leading clinical syndrome (cardiac, hypotonic, hypertensive, respiratory, asthenic, neurotic mixed version of the course);
- degree of severity – mild (3-6 complaints and symptoms), medium (8-16 characters), heavy (more than 17 signs and frequent the crises);
- phase of the disease (exacerbation or remission).
Principles of treatment
VSD treatment is to remove precipitating factors and lifestyle changes on health, the relief of symptoms using symptomatic and pathogenic agents.
Correction lifestyle should include:
- elimination of professionalhazards;
- correct mode of work and rest;
- balanced and healthy diet;
- adequate level of physical activity;
- avoiding harmful habits;
- avoidance of stressful situations or to develop stress resistance.
- normalization of body mass index.
In the medical complex must include a restorative and tonic preparations – multivitamins, adaptogens of vegetable origin (extract of Siberian ginseng, tincture aralii, Echinacea, ginseng, etc.).
Also uses a light sedative in herbal medicines – Valerian, nettle, St. John's wort, viburnum, Linden, etc. Analogues can serve as a pharmaceutical drug , Novo-passit, Valokordin, Corvalol.
An alternative may be to unconventional methods – aromatherapy, apitherapy (bee sting treatment), acupuncture, various methods of physiotherapy.
In more severe cases, prescribe antidepressants, tranquilizers. For the correction of the activities of the heart (when tachyarrhythmias) prescribed beta-blockers. Also apply medication symptomatic therapy depending on the symptoms that predominate in a patient.
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With timely diagnosis and treatment, which also has a preventive nature, the prognosis is favorable. VSD is a disease of young people, with age the symptoms pass. But, if you do not pay attention to pathological signs and endure them, it can lead to mental disorders and social disadaptation of the person.