How to treat a stroke (infarction) of the brain?
Cerebral infarction or as it is called doctors, ischemic stroke represents one of the most dangerous lesions of the brain. However, if ten years ago on a patient with this disease could put a cross (or he died or permanently lost capacity for work), now for such patients, there is some chance at a normal life after a stroke.
What is the danger of a stroke?
Cerebral infarction develops very quickly – the first irreversible failure of body functions may occur in the first few minutes after cessation of blood flow to part of the brain. Mortality from this disease is one of the highest among causes of death all deaths in Russia over the past 10 years, more than half died from diseases of the cardiovascular system, of which the first place is a heart attack, the second ischemic stroke.
Also, cerebral ischemia far more common than the risk of the emergence and development of hemorrhagic stroke is almost 4 times. Thus, the risk of dying from a heart attack of the brain is at every third of our compatriot.
But, even if the patient stays alive, he's suffering the consequences of impaired circulation. This may be weakness in the limbs, blindness, violation or failure of the internal organs, disturbances of consciousness – depending on the extensiveness and location of the lesion. The effects may be minor and pass without treatment in a period of days to three weeks, but most often they are irreversible.
The extent of ischemic stroke
There are three degrees of brain infarction, depending on, so a large area was left without a blood supply, which functions are inhibited and as soon as possible recovery.
- Mild heart attack symptoms mild, you can go during the day, the maximum recovery time of three weeks. Doctors also call this condition a small stroke.
- Moderate severity heart attack – damage specific body functions, the patient's consciousness is clear. Recovery incomplete, takes a long time.
- Severe severity of myocardial infarction, cerebral dysfunction, consciousness is depressed, a plurality of strongly expressed symptoms.
At any degree to require medical attention and hospitalization is required with the full survey. The delay in assistance is usually fatal even with a small stroke.
What occurs cerebral infarction
Reasons, and, consequently, the types of ischemic stroke, a huge number are just some of them:
- Atherothrombotic – atherosclerosis, embolism, i.e. occlusion of blood vessels by plaque or embolus secondary and patient diameter, causing the symptomsgrowing in stages.
- Cardioembolic – obstruction of the large arteries by a blood clot or embolus, is often accompanied by hemorrhagic stroke.
- Hemodynamic – due to natural or pathological reduction in blood pressure, disorders of the heart muscle stops the blood supply to the brain. Often associated with atherosclerosis.
- Lacunary – lose perforating arteries, begins with high blood pressure.
- Rheological – disruption of the hemopoietic system and purify the blood, not dissolve the clot, blood is much thinner or thicker than normal.
Each of these types has its own symptoms and treatments.
Prevention of ischemic stroke
Save yourself from the risk of cerebral infarction is quite simple – attentive to their health and timely access to a doctor, physical activity, including in the elderly, Smoking cessation and a healthy diet will reduce 50% chance of developing the disease at significantly smaller numbers. Other risk factors: atherosclerosis, hypertension and others, often can also be overcome by previous recommendations.
Least a positive result of General prevention is achievable with diabetes and heart disease – here we need first of all to treat these diseases, to prevent the occurrence of stroke.
Methods of treatment of ischemic stroke
All methods and ways of treatment of a heart attack are reduced to a special, chosen and appointed doctor depending on the type, severity and extent, and to the General, assigned to the stabilization and recovery of the body. Also common methods are prevention of the consequences and complications of a stroke.
Special treatment is always preceded by a complete examination, including magnetic resonance and computed tomography, duplex scanning of blood vessels, tests, and special methods of research like puncture spinal fluid.
Depending on the obtained results, it can be assigned to the different treatment of the total rehabilitation therapy before surgery. A large part of the therapeutic measures is the appointment of special drugs, such as:
- Anticoagulants – these drugs help to stop blood clots to grow and form new, order to remove blockage and restore normal cerebral circulation. The blood becomes less collapsible, which increases the risk of bleeding.
- Thrombolytics – drugs that dissolve blood clots. They can quickly restore blood supply and help maintain the health of brain cells. But dosage alsoshould be carefully checked, otherwise an ischemic stroke will take place, but appears the risk of developing hemorrhagic. Therefore, thrombolytics are only used in the first stage of treatment and only one category of patients.
- Antiplatelet agents – another category of drugs that prevent the formation of blood clots. Also these medications are often prescribed prophylactically.
- Neuroprotectors/cytoprotector – medication-protectors to protect cells from death and promote the replacement of dead nerve cells.
But only pills and injections are difficult to treat a patient after a stroke. In difficult cases, a carotid endarterectomy – removal of blockage of socodor surgically. In spite of specific contraindications, can be used prophylactically, at high risk of stroke. One doctor may decide on its use, this requires at least the opinion of the neurosurgeon, neurologist and cardiologist. Either may appeal to such operations as balloon angioplasty or sanirovanie vessels.
But, for the most part, doctors have to fight even if not with the stroke, and this consequences. For example, a common consequence is brain swelling, removed, separately appointed by the treatment. Below
The patient with ischemic stroke prescribed bed rest for a long time. In itself, this assignment can cause a number of complications, such as bedsores, pneumonia, thrombophlebitis, disturbance of the water balance. To avoid this, the patient requires careful daily care of a stranger.
Not to get pneumonia and any other stagnant processes in the respiratory system necessary to promote the patient as possible. To put him, propping up pillows, conduct breathing exercises, to give to inflate the balloons. If the patient is in a serious state of unconsciousness and unable to move himself, his need to turn every two hours at least on his side. Naturally, the room should be continuously ventilated.
To prevent development of aging and various diaper rash, you also need to make the whole set of hygienic procedures. This includes wiping the skin with an alcoholic solution, the constant change of diapers and bed sheets, washing the skin in the genital area with disinfecting solution. Great attention should be paid to the bed on which the patient lies – she must be special parts, or at least a fairly hard mattress. Linen on bed must be fresh, allowed putting a diaper under the sheets.
If the skin is already damaged developing pressure sores, they need to lubricate disinfecting solution and healing ointments. Separatelyyou should follow the lumbar region, sometimes there it is necessary to enclose roller or a rubber circle.
Thorough care for the oral cavity of the patient also prevents the development of complications like stomatitis. Teeth should be cleaned at least twice a day, after eating your mouth to rinse and wipe it down with a weak disinfectant solution, or critically ill patients may develop stomatitis. The same principle is washing the sick, care for the eyes and nose.
But the worst consequences of bed rest is thrombosis and dehydration. Due to immobility of the limbs, and finding in one location without the stress thickens the blood, circulation is violated, begin to form clots. It is therefore important to ensure that the patient drank with food and drink at least 2 litres of water a day, doing at least a little exercise raised his legs, bent them at the knees or below him was the massage or the complex passive
Consistently good performance and unconventional ways of treatment is the use of herbs, the use of acupuncture, massage, Della and acupuncture. With their help it is possible to withdraw the patient from unconsciousness, to improve his health and to ease the condition. They are often used for prevention of ischemic stroke.
For example, fees are often used to combat hypertension is field horsetail, hawthorn, Astragalus in therapeutic doses. As an alternative to ascorbic acid drink infusions of parsley, which also has diuretic and tonic properties.
Sweet medications can be noted raspberries – the berries in its natural form or jam well help to cope with the tone of blood vessels and normalization.
To calm the nervous system and improve vascular tone drink regular tea with peppermint and lemon balm, with the same purpose, boiled the Valerian root medicinal.