Mini stroke: first signs, symptoms, treatment and prevention
Almost everyone knows what a stroke is and how dangerous the disease is, but among people can be found in another term, the specific values of which nobody really knows is a lie. In this article we will talk about what it's for pathology, how dangerous it is and how it differs from a stroke.
That hides the title?
Just need to clarify that in official medicine is no such diagnosis as a minor stroke, not to find it in the International classification of diseases, 10 revision. It is solely a colloquial term used by patients and doctors to explain to someone what happened to him and to emphasize the seriousness of the situation.
A minor stroke may not be treated as a small stroke (stroke is either there or it's not). This concept in medicine is diagnosis challenge of cerebral blood flow (pnmc), which means the failure of cerebral functions of vascular Genesis, which appeared suddenly and are accompanied by cerebral or focal neurological symptoms (like a stroke), but are themselves either under the influence of the treatment during the first 24 hours. Thus after suffering a minor stroke, there remains no neurological symptoms, as confirmed by additional studies (CT and brain MRI).
This is the most frequent clinical forms of acute disorders of cerebral circulation. Although this time (stroke) sick and lucky (no residual phenomena transferred problems), but even a single case of minor stroke is a warning of the body for a person to urgently take measures for the prevention of acute disorders of cerebral circulation, because next time may not end so well.
If you go to medical statistics, 40% of patients who have suffered a minor stroke during the 3 next years developing ischemic or
Causes and predisposing factors of stroke
Causes and risk factors for stroke do not differ from those in the present stroke. Most often the disease lead:
First signs of mini stroke
The first signs and symptoms of stroke vary widely, which depends on the diameter and localization of the affected blood vessel, as well as the mechanism of development of disorders (thrombus, embolus, spasm, compression, disruption of autoregulation of the cerebral circulation, etc.). In some cases, the person may not even suspect that he had a minor stroke, such as dizziness, headache, numbness and tingling in the hand for a few seconds, blurred vision, muscle weakness can be symptoms of transient ischemicattack.
In other cases, violations are developing very quickly and do not remain without attention, as they have a pronounced and similar to the symptoms of this stroke.
- sharp zatiranie any area of the body or limbs, feeling of “pins and needles”;
- sudden muscle weakness in arm or leg;
- loss of sensitivity of a certain area of the skin;
- a sharp headache and increased blood pressure, dizziness;
- sudden blurred vision;
- paralysis of the feet or hands;
- drooping of the corner of his mouth, inability to smile;
- speech disorders;
- cramps, vomiting, nausea, confusion.
If you notice any of the above described symptoms in yourself or people around you, definitely call an ambulance and administer first aid to the victim, because such signs can specify how to stroke and pnmc.
Symptoms of minor stroke
A characteristic feature of the clinical picture of stroke is the short duration of the presence of pathological symptoms further their rapid regression. Also signs pnmc vary depending on the type of violation. Take a closer look.
Cerebral hypertensive crisis
This type of the rolling cerebrovascular disease the most common (2/3 of all patients with this diagnosis). Cause is hypertension, but the pathogenesis of the symptoms is failure of autoregulation of cerebral circulation. There are two possible alternatives. First – as a result of sudden increase in pressure is too cerebral artery dilate, leading to hyperperfusion of the brain tissue, venous plethora and brain edema. The second option develops with the gradual buildup of pressure, when the arteries of the brain are narrowed in response to increasing system pressure, which leads to hypoxia and hypoxia of neurons.
Signs are nonspecific. Patients complain of sudden bursting or throbbing headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting,
First aid for stroke
The scope of activities emergency first aid and medical care is no different in the stroke and this stroke, so as to distinguish these States in the beginning of the disease almost impossible.
- definitely call an ambulance;
- you need to put the patient on a hard surface (in case you need resuscitation) with a raised head end to prevent flow off of the brain tissue;
- if person vomits, then you need to turn his head to one side so vomit does not get into the respiratory tract and did not cause asphyxia;
- need to unbutton the victimthe collar and waist, so they are not squeezing the body, it is also necessary to provide fresh air;
- if you present the opportunity to measure blood pressure, make sure it is in the case of a sharp rise, you can take antihypertensives, which advise the doctor in such cases, self-administer parenteral antihypertensive medications – Smoking- a reduction of pressure should be metered, otherwise you risk to aggravate the situation;
- if the patient is in a state of clinical death – by all means start CPR and do not stop until the arrival of ambulance crews.
Video instruction on first aid to the patient with suspected stroke:
Principles of treatment
For quick and measured blood pressure and used several groups of antihypertensive drugs which are administered parenterally:
- intramuscularly administered with papaverine, Dibazol;
- intravenous magnesium with saline and furosemide;
- may also be assigned depending on additional symptoms, obzidan, inderal, aminophylline, chlorpromazine, nifedipine, sodium nitroprusside, etc.
For the normalization of cardiac activity prescribed korglikon, digoxin, kordiamin.
To improve cerebral circulation injected vasoactive drugs – aminophylline, Cavinton, nicotinic acid, Cinnarizine, citicoline, Actovegin.
For the normalization of blood rheology and microcirculation establish the use of aspirin, dipyridamole, sermion, pentoksifilin, anticoagulants heparin and low molecular weight heparins (fraxiparin, enoxaparin).
For neuroprotection used drugs – ceraxon, nootropil, piracetam, Cerebrolysin, b vitamins.
When brain edema is prescribed manitol, furosemide, aminophylline, corticosteroid hormones, antihistamines.
With frequent TIAS, which are caused by atherosclerotic narrowing of the extracranial arteries may surgical treatment in vascular surgery.
Video about mini-strokes:
Consequences and prevention of stroke
As has been said, the stroke does not have direct consequences if not associated with brain edema, which can lead to death. But TIA, or other pnmc is a kind of last warning for the body. According to statistics about 40% of patients during the first 3 years after a TIA are developing an extensive ischemic stroke, and hypertensive crises often end up bleeding into the brain. Because an important aspect of prevention of fatal cardiovascular accidents is the identification and treatment of conditions and diseases thatlead.
Important in the prevention was given and the correction of risk factors of stroke, modification of lifestyle, healthy eating, maintaining a normal body weight, regular physical activity.