Glioblastoma — the most dangerous brain tumor
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive and malignant brain tumor that occurs from glial. This supporting tissue of the brain, which is composed of intercellular substance and a large number of glial cells, which is approximately 50 times greater than the number of neurons in the brain. Neuroglia is around 40% of the volume of brain tissue. Glioblastoma develops from astrocytes – glial cells that are star-shaped. Glioblastoma can grow is primary and formed during the malignant transformation of astrocytoma (a benign tumor of astrocytes).
This tumor is found mainly in patients of Mature age and senior people, but it is possible the development of pathology in young age and even in children. More common in men. Its typical localization is the cerebral hemispheres and subcortical ganglia. The tumors are inclined to infiltrative growth and often grows in the corpus callosum and spreads to the other hemisphere.
Glioblastoma is a common among primary brain tumors not metastatic) it is found in 20% of cases.
The causes of tumor formation
As with most cancers, the exact causes of glioblastoma education today is not known, but it is definitely established a causal relationship with these risk factors:
- the patient's age 40-70 years;
- impact of radiation;
- prolonged exposure to carcinogenic chemicals;
- genetic propensity;
- viral disease;
- the use of canned meat;
- the negative impact of electromagnetic radiation;
- the abuse of alcohol;
- the patient has a history of astrocytoma or glioma (
There are several types of classification of glioblastoma. The tumor may vary in their degree of malignancy, which is determined by histological examination of tissue samples. Pathomorphology determine how the tumor cells look similar to normal astrocytes: the smaller the similarities, zlokacestvennoe education. But we must remember that in each case the tumor is malignant.
There are 3 histological types of tumors:
- Gliosarcoma belongs to.
The definition of these variants is very important as it allows you to choose the most effective course of therapy (various tumors have different sensitivity to chemo - and radiotherapy). And also this allows for more accurate prognosis.
Familiar to Oncology the TNM classification for tumorsthe brain is not used, as it has its own nuances and difficulties. Today these tumors be divided into a clinical stage helps the system adopted by the who in 2000, according to which there are 4 degrees or stages of brain cancer:
- Minimal malignant.
- Tumors with severe malignancy.
- The most aggressive and malignant neoplasms of the brain.
You must remember that glioblastoma
All clinical symptoms can be divided into 2 groups: cerebral and focal neurological.
Cerebral symptoms of glioblastoma
The basis for the development of this group of diseases is related to the gradual, as with compression of the cerebellum and the vestibular nerve, and intracranial hypertension. This is a severe condition, which with time progresses, sometimes patients can't even turn heads and get out of bed.
- Vomiting of Central origin (the brain) develops in case of irritation of the vomiting center in the midbrain (direct compression of the tumor or as a result of increased intracranial pressure). Any stimuli cause vomiting – food, water, movement, party items, medical supplies. Sometimes this symptom it is necessary to switch to parenteral nutrition.
Focal neurological symptoms
The type and severity depends on the localization of glioblastoma and its size. Most often the tumor grows in the frontal or parietal region of the brain. There are the following groups focal symptoms:
- Movement disorders – may occur as paralysis and paresis of one or more limbs. Often affect one side of the body (opposite from the location of the tumor), if developed paralysis on the other side of the body, it means that the tumor has invaded into the other hemisphere.
- Sensitive dysfunction are violated (increase or decrease) or disappear entirely some kinds of sensitivity, for example, pain, temperature, tactile, vibration.
- Begins to suffer memory and intelligence, is changing the nature of the patient, develop various mental disorders (particularly true of tumors of the frontal plot).
- Seizures or equivalents.
- Disappears hearing and balance, the patient is not able to determine the position of his body.
- The patient ceases to recognize addressed to him orally or in writing, cannot speak itself (motor and sensory aphasia).
- Disturbed vision.
- There are various types of hallucinations.
- Various autonomic disorders – arrhythmias and heart rate, respiration, etc.
- May experience different types of violations of consciousness upYes prohibitive coma.
It is important to remember that the smaller the tumor, the fewer clinical symptoms, but at the same time, the patient has a greater chance for recovery. Because even slightly pronounced signs as described above, should not be left without medical attention.
To establish the diagnosis of glioblastoma will require the following tests:
- neurological examination;
Brain tumors almost never give metastases, because all treatment is aimed at removal of the primary tumors. Therapy of glioblastoma should only be comprehensive and include:
- Neurosurgical removal of a malignant lesion. Today there are modern, high-precision and minimally invasive techniques for surgical removal of brain tumors, which can accurately determine the boundaries of education and to remove it with minimal impact on surrounding healthy tissue. For example, cyber-knife or gamma knife (radiosurgery).
- Radiation therapy can be used as before surgery, if the tumor is inoperable, and to reduce its size and after surgery to prevent recurrence.
- Chemotherapy is applied in treatment of a pathology, as a rule, after surgery.
- Targeted therapy is a modern method of treatment using biological drugs currently in clinical trials takes a large number of these medicines.
Video about glioblastoma:
The prognosis for people diagnosed with glioblastoma is poor. Life expectancy even after the full course of treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) very rarely exceed the five-year barrier. This is due primarily to the frequent development of disease recurrence (occurs in almost 80% of operated patients).
Also the tumor was growing rapidly, leading to brain edema and death from klineline medulla oblongata in the foramen Magnum before the operation. A circumstance which worsens the prognosis and acts as a severe neurological deficit that is associated with infiltration of brain by tumor tissue and the effects of surgical treatment.