Hypotension: causes, symptoms and treatment
Almost everyone is familiar with this disease, as
What is arterial hypotension
Hypotension is a condition which is accompanied by a reduction in systemic
In ICD 10 hypotension is listed in the category other and unspecified diseases of the circulatory system under the following codes:
- I 95 – hypotension;
- I 95.0 – idiopathic hypotension;
- I 95.1 – orthostatic hypotension;
- I 95.2 – medicated hypotension;
- I 95.8 – other types of hypotension;
- I 95.9 – unspecified hypotension.
Depending on the presence of pathological signs of low pressure is isolated:
- physiological hypotension (individual normal variant, hypotension athletes and adaptive hypotension, hypotension in the first trimester of pregnancy);
- pathological (in each case, if there is pathological signs of low pressure).
Depending on the development of the disease there are:
- acute hypotension (shock, collapse, orthostatic hypotension, transient);
- chronic hypotension.
Depending on the causes of hypotension is:
- primary (NDCs on hypotonic type);
- secondary or symptomatic (Addison's disease, anemia, hypothyroidism, decrease in cardiac output, bleeding, hypoglycaemia, profuse diarrhea and diarrhea, Meniere's disease, some infectious diseases, peptic ulcer, liver cirrhosis, syndrome Shay-Drager syndrome, Bradbury-Eggleston, etc.).
Video transmission about hypotension:
The causes of hypotension
As the regulation of blood pressure is a very complex mechanism, which involves a tone of arteries and veins, heart rate and cardiac output volume of blood, the volume of circulating fluid in the body, the nervous and humoral regulation of all these processes (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, cardiovascular center of the medulla oblongata), and the reasons for the disruption of this system, and hypotension a lot. We consider those most common in everyday life.
The most common cause of hypotension is a violation of the regulation of vascular tone (neurocirculatory dystonia, orthostatic hypotension). The main mechanism that maintains a certain physiological level of HELL is baroreceptor the reflex arc. At lower blood pressure decreases the pressure of blood on walls of vessels where the baroreceptors. It leads (via a reflex arc, which closes in the brain) activation and the release of blood catecholamines and components of the RAAS.
Due to such changes in the arterioles constrict, increasing their resistance and peripheralthe pressure increases. In addition, narrowing the veins, which are a kind of depot for the blood, quickens the heartbeat and increases stroke volume of the heart. Violations reflex regulation of arterial and venous, which are beginning to respond violently to pressure reduction (not narrowed) and result in resistant arterial hypotension in the NDC and orthostatic hypotension.
Among the diseases of the heart to reduce the pressure and unconscious States often lead arrhythmia. Bradycardia and heart block (heart rate 60 per minute) accompanied by a decrease in minute volume of blood flow, manifested by hypotension. Also pressure drop can be observed when tachyarrhythmias, when the ejection of the heart becomes inefficient (group ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular fibrillation). The pressure may be reduced in the presence of interference in the outflow of blood from the heart (narrowing of the aortic valve, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, primary pulmonary hypertension, myxoma of the heart, intracardiac thrombus, pericardial tamponade).
Other causes of hypotension should be noted:
- anemia (decreased blood viscosity);
- Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), adrenal amyloidosis, their surgical removal (of a deficiency of catecholamines);
- reduced thyroid function;
- acute and chronic bleeding (a reduction BCC);
- infectious diseases;
- anaphylactic and other types of shock;
- overdose of certain medications (antihypertensive, diuretics, nitroglycerin).
The risk of hypotension is that it leads to hypoperfusion and hypoxia of the brain with all the relevant symptoms and consequences.
The symptoms of hypotension
Immediately it should be noted that in this article we will tell you about the initial hypotension, which is also called hypotonic disease. Since secondary options it is not a major symptom because of the important role diagnostics plays.
Complaints of patients are diverse and may include General weakness, headache, apathy, fatigue, decreased performance, memory loss – all signs of chronic
The most common nosological forms of hypotension
So, consider nosologic form of hypotension, which are the most common, read more.
Video instruction of proper blood pressure measurement:
When and how to treat hypotension
The treatment of hypotension is not an easy task, and it is not always necessary. To eliminate the negative pressure is necessary only in the case of pathological hypotension, when her symptoms disrupt their way of life. Therapy of secondary hypotension is to eliminate its causes, butthe primary treatment is not always successful. In the majority of cases with her trying to cope with medicines, which is totally wrong. First, pharmacological agents capable of increasing the pressure that can be taken on a long-term basis, there is little in modern medicine. Second, get rid of low pressure is possible by means of some non-pharmacological methods and lifestyle changes, where to start. The treatment of primary hypotension engaged a cardiologist, a neurologist, an internist and family doctor.
Video about how to deal with low blood pressure:
First, you need to optimize your daily routine. Using simple hygienic measures to get rid of from low blood pressure:
- make for yourself a clear routine with rational alternation of work and rest;
- you need to sleep (night sleep of 7-8 hours);
- be sure to include in the schedule holyblue morning gymnastics and water procedures;
- walk in the fresh air for up to 2 hours a day (Biking, Hiking, another activity);
- a full and varied meals (4-5 times a day), the diet should enrich such foods that are able to increase the pressure, animal protein, salt, strong tea and coffee, cocoa, hot and spicy dishes, but everything is within reasonable limits;
- take extra vitamins and minerals (A, C, potassium, magnesium);
- give up bad habits;
- to visit a therapist to gain resistance to stress, correction of emotional state;
- not to dwell on your condition, better use this energy for other purposes, for example, get a hobby.
However, as mentioned above, no effective and safe medicines to increase the pressure. For this purpose, use mainly vegetable and biological neurostimulators – Pantocrinum, Siberian ginseng extract, infusion of Chinese Magnolia vine, ginseng extract, Echinacea extract, radiograms, infusion of aralia, zamanihi. They are recommended to use together with the infusion of Valerian root. The most common treatment – 30 drops of Siberian ginseng for half an hour before meals 3 times a day along with 200 mg of vitamin C.
A positive effect can be observed in the application of saparal, caffeine (50-100 mg 2-3 per day), etimizola 100 mg 3 times a day for 1 month.
To increase the pressure when applying kordiamin, preparations of strychnine, agonists – mezaton, ephedrine, mineralo - and glucocorticoids, but such treatment is associated with increased risk of various side effects (it needs to appoint only a doctor, assessing the ratiorisk/benefit).
Recommended physiotherapy, which have a General tonic effect and training vessels:
- electrophoresis of calcium chloride, caffeine, mezaton;
- galvanic collar on Shcherbak;
- diadynamic therapy to the cervical region of the sympathetic ganglia;
- contrast shower and other water procedures;
- General ultraviolet irradiation;
- massage and reflexology;
- darsonvalization scalp.
Typically, hypotension is a lot of young people, with age, it runs independently. Because hypotensive patients should see your doctor regularly and control your pressure, because the artificial increase for a long time may in future lead to the development of hypertension, which is dangerous both for health and for life.