Hypertension: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
Hypertension is a persistent and prolonged elevation
What is hypertension?
Most often high blood pressure is called hypertension, but more correct name – hypertension. You can also come across the term "hypertension", but they reflect the same thing: constantly high blood pressure.
Blood called pressure created by the heart muscle in the blood vessels. She rhythmically shortened and with each thrust throwing into the aorta once the blood. This is what allows normal circulation in the body.
Causes and risk factors of developing hypertension
Despite the fact that the mechanism of development of hypertension in most cases is the same, there are quite a variety of factors that can trigger the occurrence of hypertension:
- Obesity. The higher the weight, the more stress testing the heart.
- Frequent stress at work or at home.
- Sedentary lifestyle, lack of physical activity.
- Improper nutrition: excess in the diet of animal fats, salt, lack of fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Bad habits: alcohol, drugs, Smoking.
- Excess blood cholesterol that is deposited in the walls of blood vessels, narrowing them.
- Taking certain medicines.
- Age more than 50 years.
- Pregnancy. During pregnancy can develop what is known as hypertension of pregnant women, which takes place after childbirth.
- Of kidney disease.
- Some pathology of the heart.
- Genetic predisposition to hypertension.
These factors increase the likelihood of developing hypertension, and the more of them coincide at a specific person, the more chances to meet her in the future.
Stage of hypertension
In modern medicine, adhere to the classification of stages of hypertension, taking into account the mean arterial pressure that lasts for a long time. Distinguish:
- Optimal blood pressure: less than 120 over 80.
- Normal 120-129 80-84 on.
- Vysokovoltnoe, the degree of prehypertensive – on 85-89 130-139.
- First degree – 140-159 90-99.
- Second degree – at 160-179 100-109.
- Third degree – above 180 over higher than 110.
In the first stage, hypertension usually does not manifest itself, the person can not guess about high blood pressure because it increases gradually, and the body manages to compensate for the change. On the second there are individual changes in the so-called target organs (kidney, heart, blood vessels). In the third occur of complications and pathology.
There is also another classification of hypertension: the cause of:
- Primary hypertension, which is alsonamed essential. This means that the objective reasons on the part of other bodies there, but the pressure is high. It is believed that about 95% of cases of hypertension are of this type.
- Secondary. Persistent increase in pressure triggered by the diseases of other organs, most commonly kidneys or heart.
In addition, there is another private case of increasing pressure – a hypertensive crisis.
Hypertension often develops gradually over months and even years, allowing the body to adjust to the new conditions of work, incorporate adaptive mechanisms and function more or less normally. But if the pressure rises sharply, abruptly, it poses a serious threat to the health and sometimes the life of a person.
Symptoms of hypertension
It is important to understand that in the first stage, hypertension is asymptomatic. The pressure increase is slow, and the body can to a certain stage, to compensate for it without losing health. Therefore, this stage manifests itself only by an increase in pressure, which can be determined only with the help of tonometer.
But at a certain point one starts to feel
Complications of hypertension
More recently, about a century ago, after suffering a hypertensive crisis average lifespan was 2-3 years. The reason is the lack of effective methods for reducing pressure and maintaining it within norms. Without treatment of high blood pressure health consequences can be very severe. The higher the pressure, the harder the heart to maintain blood circulation. Repetitive strain, in the end, lead to heart failure is an extremely serious condition that threatens the life of the person.
Suffer and blood vessels. Because of the increased pressure they are constantly under tension. The consequence may be the appearance of aneurismal – vybiranii". But even a small defect on the wall may lead to hemorrhage. It is especially dangerous if it happens in the brain. The consequences can be very fatal.
Without monitoring and treatment of hypertension can significantly increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney conditions.
In General, hypertension significantly reduces the quality of life and reduces it, but this can be avoided by timely treatment.
Methods of diagnosis of hypertension
To determine the stage of hypertension and the presence of complications in the different organs is used developed a diagnostic scheme which includes the following directions:
- Measurement of blood pressure. This is the first and most obvious method, but not everyone knows how to correctly measure blood pressure. The measurement is performed on both hands,the difference between the readings must not be more than 5-10 units. Selects the higher figure. Is 2-3 measurements on each arm with a gap of 5-10 minutes. Is determined by the average.
- History collection. For the diagnosis of hypertension it is essential to establish a lifestyle adheres to the patient if there are some typical complaints and symptoms. You need to determine what illness he suffered earlier. Certain role plays and heredity, so the family anamnesis is also important.
- Listening to the heart. Using the stethoscope the doctor listens to the heart, enabling it to detect different noises, changing colors, identify rhythm, and a number of other important parameters.
- Electrocardiography. Using this method, you can more carefully study the characteristics of the heart.
- A blood test. First and foremost, a cardiologist interested in the level of cholesterol in the blood, as well as a number of other indicators: hemoglobin, number of platelets.
- Ultrasound of the heart and blood vessels. It can be used to determine the physical condition of the heart. Doppler ultrasound is used to study the structure of blood flow.
- Examination of the kidneys. Sometimes they are responsible for high blood pressure.
After the cardiologist will gather all the information he needs, he will be able to shave the optimal scheme for the treatment of hypertension.
Methods of treating hypertension
Treatment of hypertension can go two ways. If there are clear reasons for the increase in pressure, for example, of renal disease, then getting rid of them, you can stop hypertension. But, most of all, have a direct influence on the pressure, decreasing it with special preparations.
Today in medicine there are a few large groups of drugs for the treatment of hypertension:
- Diuretics. They reduce the amount of fluid in the body, thereby facilitating the work of the heart.
- Calcium channel blockers. They decrease contractility of the vessels, thereby eliminating the cause of their spasm.
- The ACE inhibitors. These substances block the action of substances that promote vasoconstriction.
- Antagonists adrenergicheskih receptors. This group includes two of the popular groups of drugs for hypertension: alpha - and beta-blockers.
This is only the most common forms of drugs for hypertension, just as in modern pharmacology there are about a dozen and types and hundreds of commercial names. Therefore, for each patient, the cardiologist selects a particular scheme of therapy.
But it is not complete without the correction of lifestyle. First and foremost, patients need to change the type of food.
Diet for hypertension
Proper diet for hypertension can help to significantly reduce the rate of progression of the disease, andto normalize the pressure. To do this, follow these tips:
- Should be less animal fat: fatty meat, particularly pork, butter, fatty dairy products. The only exception is fish, because the fat reduces the level of cholesterol bad cholesterol in the blood.
- The amount of salt in the diet should be as low as possible, because it delays the fluid in the body, which is highly undesirable.
- Caloric intake should be reduced, especially if there are problems with excess weight.
- It is very important that the diet is present fresh fruit, vegetables, herbs, juices.
- It is desirable to establish smaller meals with small portions but frequent meals.
- From the diet is necessary to exclude strong tea, coffee. You must replace them with stewed fruit, herbal drinks, juice.
Compliance with these rules helps to prevent degradation, which is especially important at the beginning of treatment, when there is a gradual decrease in pressure and a reverse adaptation of the body to work under normal conditions.
Hypertension is a chronic disease that requires continuous monitoring of, and adaptation of lifestyle to the new conditions. And most importantly to adhere to the following guidelines:
- You need to get rid of bad habits such as Smoking and drinking alcohol.
- High blood pressure does not mean that you need to lead a passive lifestyle. Heavy loads should be avoided, but a certain level of physical activity should adhere to. Fit a simple walk or jog, Cycling, skiing, swimming, light fitness, yoga, dancing and so on.
- It is very important to get rid of stress because they cause an increase in pressure. To do this, remove the cause, if this is not possible, to stop them will help sedatives. When anxiety should always make a sedative herbal preparations.
- The house of the people suffering from hypertension should be blood pressure cuff apparatus for measuring blood pressure. Someone from family members or the patient himself should be able to use that in any unwell can measure the pressure and, if necessary, to take measures for its reduction.
- It is necessary to discuss with your doctor the contents of the "emergency kit" — a set of drugs to reduce pressure in case of critical increase. These medicines for high blood pressure you should always have with you.
- The methods of traditional medicine from hypertension is quite diverse, you can use them, but you must consult with the appointing and controlling treatment by a physician, so they do notconflict with their assigned drug therapy.
Useful exercises to lower blood pressure:
Hypertension is a disease that requires a lifestyle change, sometimes dramatically. But it is possible and necessary to lead an active an active lifestyle for years to come.