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The structure of the human brain

Despite the amazing abilities (intellectual and psychic) some people, the human brain is not at 100% and only 5-7%. Due to this brain tissue has unlimited backup capabilities, allowing you to restore normal function even after a massive stroke. It also creates a whole new direction for research, which seek to put to work the human brain for all its power. I wonder then what is humanly possible?

The brain is the main organ of the Central nervous system, it regulates all the processes of human life. Is the brain in the cranial cavity, where it is protected from external negative influences and mechanical damage. In the process of development, the brain takes the shape of a skull. Looks like a yellowish gelatinous mass as the composition of brain tissue has a large amount of specific lipids.

The brain has always been and remains an extraordinary mystery to scientists, they are trying to solve for thousands of years and probably many more will be doing it. This is a perfect mechanism created by nature, which allows a person to be called as homo sapiens, or Homo sapiens. Our brain is the work of millions of years of evolution.

General information

The brain consists of more than 100 billion nerve cells. In the structure of the body anatomically distinguish a large brain, which consists of right and left hemispheres, cerebellum and brain stem. The brain is covered by 3 membranes and is up to 95% of the capacity of the cranium.

The mass of brain tissue in healthy individuals of different and the average is in the range of 1100-1800 grams. No connection between attributes and the weight of the brain is not established. Women, as a rule, the Central organ of the national Assembly weighs 200 grams less, than men.

The cerebrum is covered with gray matter – the basic functionality of the ball where almost all of the neurons that form the cerebral cortex. Inside is white matter which consists of processes of neurons and represents the pathways by which information enters the cortex for analysis and following this, commands are sent down.

Not only in the cerebral cortex are the control centers, which are called on-screen, they are present in the brain are surrounded by white matter. Such centers are called nuclear or subcortical (clusters of nerve cells bodies in the form of cores).

Inside the brain is a hollow system that consists of 4 ventricles and several duct. It connects with the canal of the spinal cord. Within this system circulates CSF or cerebrospinal fluid, which performs a protective function.

Video transmission onthe brain:

The function of the brain

The brain is a very complex structure, which corresponds to and functions. Very difficult to enumerate them, as this includes the entire sphere of activity of the human body. Discuss the basic functions of life:

  1. The locomotor activity. All movements of the body associated with the activity area of the cerebral cortex, which is located in the parietal lobe in the anterior Central gyrus. The activities of all groups of skeletal muscles is under the leadership of this part of the brain.
  2. Sensitivity. This function meets the rear Central gyrus in the parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex. In addition to skin sensitivity (tactile, pain, temperature, baroreceptors), here is the center of proprioceptive sensitivity, which controls the sense of body position and its separate parts in space.
  3. Hearing. The area of the brain that is responsible for hearing, is located in the temporal lobes of the cortex.
  4. Vision. Visual cent oblasti is localized in the occipital cortex.
  5. The taste and smell. The center, which is responsible for these functions can be found on the border of the frontal and temporal lobes, chlorine convolutions.
  6. The person's speechas a motor function and sensory (pronunciation of words and understanding) are in the centers of Broca and Wernicke cortex.
  7. In an oblong brain Department are all important for life centres – respiration, heart rate, regulation of the lumen of blood vessels, alimentary reflexes, e.g. swallowing, all the protective nature of reflexes (coughing, sneezing, gagging, lacrimation, etc.), the regulation of the state of the smooth muscle fibers of the internal organs.
  8. Posterior part of the body regulates the support of equilibrium and coordination of motor activity, in addition, there are many ways that carry information in the higher and lower centers of the brain.
  9. The average brain contains subcortical centers that regulate visual, auditory and motor functions in the lower level.
  10. Diencephalon: the thalamus regulates all types of sensitivity of the hypothalamus converts nervous signals into endocrine (the Central organ of the endocrine system), and also regulates the activity of the autonomic nervous system.

These are the basic centers of the brain, which provide the person lives, but there are many others, such as mail, bills, music, human nature, irritability, differences in colour, appetite, etc.

The meninges

Brain tissue is enclosed and protected by 3 membranes, which are a direct continuation of the spinal membranes:

  1. Soft – fits directly withbrain matter is rich in blood vessels. This shell repeats all the curves of the brain, comes deep within its furrows. That is the blood capillaries of the shell is produced by the choroid plexus of the cerebral ventricles that synthesize the CSF.
  2. Spider – forms a space between the first shell and a. It does not penetrate deep into the nervous tissue, and provides space for the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid, which prevents the penetration of pathogens in the Central nervous system (takes the role of lymph).
  3. Solid is in direct contact with the bone tissue of the skull and performs a protective role. From Dura depart a large process, which stabilizes the brain matter inside the skull, prevents its displacement in injuries, and also separates the different anatomical areas of the brain from each other.

Video about the structure of the brain:

Anatomical parts of the brain

Distinguish 5 separate anatomical parts of the brain that have formed frontogenesis differently. Let's start with the oldest parts, gradually moving to younger parts of the brain.


It is the oldest part of the brain that is a continuation of the spinal cord. Grey matter is here presented in the form of nuclei of cranial nerves, and the white forms a conductive path up and down.

There are important subcortical centers of coordination of movements, the regulation of metabolism, balance, breathing, blood circulation, protective reflexes.


Includes the Pons and the cerebellum. The cerebellum also called the little brain. It is located in the posterior cranial fossa and weighs in at a 120-140 grams. Has 2 hemispheres, which are interconnected with the worm. The bridge looks like a thick white cushion.

Hindbrain regulates balance and coordination of a person. Also there is a large number of neural pathways that carry information in the higher and lower centers.


Consists of 2 upper (optic) cusps and 2 lower (auditory). Here is the center, which is responsible for reflex head turning in the direction of the noise.


It includes the thalamus, which performs the role of a mediator. All signals to the hemispheres of the brain pass through just the way of the thalamus. Also the thalamus responsible for body's adaptation and all kinds of sensitivity.

The hypothalamus is a subcortical center which regulates the activity of the autonomic nervous system, therefore, all the internal organs. He is responsible for perspiration, thermoregulation, clearance and vascular tone, respiratory rate, heart rate, intestinal peristalsis, education herbal enzymes, and so this area of the brain responsible for sleep and wakefulness of the body, feeding behavior and appetite.

In addition, heis the Central organ of the endocrine system, where nerve impulses of the cerebral cortex are transformed in the humoral response. The hypothalamus regulates the pituitary by making the growth hormone releasing factors.

End (brain)

It is the right and left hemispheres, which are combined into one corpus callosum. The final brain is the most recent in evolutionary terms, part of the medulla in humans and is up to 80% of the entire mass of the body.

The surface has a large number of convolutions and furrows, which are covered with bark, where all the higher centers of regulation of the activities of the body.

Hemisphere is divided into shares – the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. The right hemisphere controls the left part of the body, and the left Vice versa. But there are centers that are localized in only one part and not duplicated. Typically, right-handers they are in the left hemisphere, left-handers Vice versa.

The cerebral cortex

The structure of the cortex is very complex and is a multi-level system. And not on all parts of the structure are the same. Some distinguish only 3 layers of cells (cortex), and some all 6 (new bark). If the bark is spread, then its area will be approximately 220 thousand square millimeters.

The whole cortex is functionally divided into individual fields or (fields (Brodmann), which are responsible for a particular function in the body. It is a kind of map of what the person is able, and where those skills are hidden in your brain.

Despite the amazing abilities (intellectual and psychic) some people, the human brain is not at 100% and only 5-7%. Due to this brain tissue has unlimited backup capabilities, allowing you to restore normal function even after a massive stroke. It also creates a whole new direction for research, which seek to put to work the human brain for all its power. I wonder then what is humanly possible?