Traumatic brain injury
Traumatic brain injury according to statistics 10% of all disability among young people, and in most cases, unfavorable prognosis is associated with late appeal for medical assistance. For some types of traumatic brain injury is characterized by the presence of light period, during which no life-threatening signs, because people do not seek help. But after some time (hours or days), irreversible changes in the brain that lead to death or permanent loss of health. It is important to recognize as it is manifested a particular kind of injury and what to do in this case.
Causes and classification
The most common head injuries:
- road accident;
- household injuries;
- sports injuries;
- gunshot wounds, injuries blunt and sharp objects;
- accidents in the workplace.
Traumatic brain injury is a collective term that includes different types and severity of damage to the skull and its contents (brain tissue, arterial and venous vessels, lining of the brain, cranial nerve fibres).
There are 2 groups of TBI:
- A closed TBI is an injury in which not disrupted the integrity of the aponeurotic plate of the skull. The scalp and the underlying soft tissue may be damaged or not, also there may be a skull fracture or no fracture. But the main condition isthat the internal environment of the skull as a result of injury preserves its integrity (does not communicate with the external, which is provided by the integrity of the fascia).
- Open TBI is diagnosed in case of damage to the integrity of the fascia and the availability of the communication between the internal environment of the skull and external. Here are the 2 types of open injuries: penetrating and non-penetrating. If the integrity of the Dura mater, penetrating trauma, if not non-invasive.
To distinguish these two types of CCT is fundamentally important, as in the case of open there is a very high risk of infection of the brain and its membranes with the development of secondary meningitis or encephalitis. And this requires an entirely different therapeutic tactics and preventive measures.
Video about traumatic brain injury:
Clinical signs of brain injury
Consider the most frequent clinical variants of CCT.
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As a rule,
To diagnose a traumatic brain injury is easy, much harder to install it. And given the mechanism of this damage could be observed simultaneouslyseveral clinical variants at the same time.
For diagnostic use:
- neurological and General examination;
Principles of treatment of traumatic brain injury
The treatment of any traumatic brain injury can be divided into 2 stages:
- First aid.
- Stationary subjects the stage of treatment, including neurosurgical operation.
Video about first aid in the concussion:
It is important to remember! Any injury, even the easiest, which is accompanied by even a momentary loss of consciousness, need of hospitalization. This is due to the high risk of potentially life-threatening conditions in the future.
Treatment can be conservative and operative. Conservative treatment includes strict compliance with bed rest and all of the other recommendations of the doctor, medication symptomatic treatment. In most cases of serious injuries treatment should be neurosurgical, and the sooner the operation the better the prognosis.
TBI prognosis is directly dependent on the severity and type of injury. We must not forget that this injury is accompanied by high mortality and severe early and late complications. Because you must comply with all medical advice, even after the injury to maintain health and clarity of mind.