Diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease – a disease in which begins the death of neurons that produce dopamine. This leads to disruption of motor function, loss of muscle tone, tremor and General stiffness.
The disease develops after sixty years, in 1 case out of 100, men more common, which in women.
Over time, the disease progresses and the number of complications can lead the patient to death.
The causes of Parkinson's disease
The disease occurs due to violation of production of dopamine, which leads to malfunction of brain cells responsible for motor function. It is established that the predisposition to Parkinson's disease is genetically transmitted.
It is very important to diagnose the disease, because in addition to this disease there are several diseases with similar symptoms:
- Secondary parkinsonism, which develops as a result of injuries and various infectious diseases.
Diagnostics and diagnosis
The manifestation of the following symptoms you must immediately contact the doctor:
- High muscle tone.
- The retardation of movement.
- Instability when walking.
All these symptoms can be signs of developing a serious illness. At this stage of the research may not give accurate result: the tests confirm the disease, and CT will not show the source of the disease in the brain.
To identify the disease at this stage is very difficult, but it is possible.
Therefore, for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is used for gamma and positron emission tomography, can detect the nidus, as well as to establish an accurate diagnosis based on examination findings and patient's complaints.
Forms of the disease
To determine the form of the disease is possible by certain symptoms predominant in a particular case.
- Combined form. A marked increased tone, tremors in the limbs, slowness of movements.
- Shaking form. With her well-marked tremor in the limbs, and tremor of the lower jaw.
- Rigid form. In addition to the retardation of the movements there is a high tone in the muscles, however, the tremor is almost absent.
The stage of the disease
- Unilateral symptoms: tremor and hypertonus is expressed on the one hand.
- Bilateral symptoms: a degenerative process applies to both halves of the body.
- Bilateral symptoms are exacerbated by physical disabilities.
- Significant impairments of motor function, a person can not move normally, the body leans forward, the steps are small, mincing.
- Complete loss of motor function, the patient becomes confined to a wheelchair. At this stageto deal with the symptoms of the disease is almost impossible, although in some cases choosing the right dosage of medication can improve the condition of the patient.
How to identify the disease?
A number of symptoms that can be observed throughout the development of the disease, allow time to understand that the patient suffers from Parkinson's disease and not some other neurological disorder.
- Slow the progression of the disease: symptoms may not occur at all or occur to a small degree for 5 years.
- Pathological process begins asymmetrically: first, there is a unilateral tremor, which eventually extends to the second half of the body.
- A tremor of rest – during rest the patient's fingers move, as if counting the coins.
- Lost or significantly changes the sense of smell: some scents no longer okazatsya other hand, is excessively annoying.
- Disorders of motor function, loss of the ability to keep the body straight: the patient leans forward constantly.
- Weight loss.
- The gait becomes shuffling, sick like mince small steps.
- The patient loses the ability to change the facial expression: it becomes like a mask.
- There are no mental disorders found in other similar disease: the patient does not lose the ability to think, retains a clear mind and thinking.
Methods of treatment of Parkinson's disease
There are several drugs, greatly facilitate the patient's condition. Drugs relieve symptoms of disease and allow the patient to lead a normal lifestyle. However, to get rid of the disease completely, at this stage of development of medicine, is not possible. There is no medication that can restore loss of brain cells responsible for the production of dopamine. Therefore, Parkinson's is an incurable disease.
Therefore, treatment is aimed at alleviating symptoms and extending the normal life of the patient.
There are two areas of treatment methods:
- A therapeutic method. It is aimed at slowing the degeneration of brain cells, which can significantly reduce the speed of disease development.
- Symptomatic method. It aims to significantly improve the patient's life and eliminate the symptoms of the disease.
The most common at the moment, the drug to combat symptoms of Parkinson's disease Levodopa is considered. This drug allows you to get rid of motor dysfunction, and addiction to it does not occur for a long period of time, and the efficiency is equal to almost 100%.
In any case, both methods of treating the disease are used throughout the life of the patient, so as to overcome the degenerative processes inthe brain tissue is impossible.
With respect to Levodopa, in addition to this medicine have to make a number of other as it has some very unpleasant side effects. Therefore, Levodopa is used in the later stages of the disease, and at an early trying to limit the intake of this effective but quite harmful medicine.
For example, patients younger than fifty as an alternative offer to take medications-dopamine antagonists, which allow to partially restore the level of lost substance in the body. Unfortunately, this therapy is not very effective and helps for a short period of time. After you have to use more serious drugs, as over time the disease developing.
Older people already prescribed Levodopa, regardless of disease stage, as in their case, the instability of posture and tremor worse treatment outcomes.
In addition, patients often have to resort to using antidepressants: over time, patients with depression may experience suicidal thoughts. In these cases requires not only medical care, but also care for loved ones.
Therapy in Parkinson's disease
Since therapy is conducted throughout the life of the patient, you should pay special attention to his mental, emotional and physical condition.
If the patient's condition deteriorated, it can be a sign of depression, non-compliance with the regime of the day or the development of associated disease.
In addition, it is very important for as long as possible to retain the ability to move independently, to deal with the manifestation of impaired motor function.
Together with the progression of the disease must vary with the individual program of physical exercise that will preserve the ability to move.
In the early stages is still possible to actively deal with the development of the disease by combining different methods of treatment.
- Levodopa combined with carbidopa is prescribed by the physician, if the patient's condition requires immediate admission of serious drugs. After taking the possible side symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
Because a few years of treatment, Levodopa causes serious disorders: inactivity is sharply replaced by hyperactivity and Vice versa, the doctor also prescribes the reception of antagonists of dopamine that helps to reduce this side effect.
- In the later stages and to relieve the side effects of Levodopa, Bromocriptine is used. Overdose of medication may cause nausea, lowering pressure and headache.
- In the early stages of the disease, and as a Supplement to Levodopa, Biperiden, Trihexyphenidyl or Defenestration. These drugscontraindicated in patients with impaired visual function in atherosclerosis and hypertension.
In addition to the above methods, there is another method of dealing with Parkinson's disease. If medication does not give any results, your doctor may prescribe deep brain stimulation or stereotactic surgery. This allows to partially restore the lost functions of the brain through the stimulation of certain cerebral areas.
The prognosis of the disease
Even with the most careful and long treatment of symptoms of Parkinson's disease develop. For the first 5 years of the disease by persons with disabilities becomes 25% of cases. Those who suffer from the disease more than 5 years, the disability is increased to 70%. Among those who are ill for more than 10 years, the chances of becoming disabled increase to 90-100%.
Scary statistics show that patients with Parkinson's disease virtually no expectations: steady increase in symptoms leads to death.
Fortunately, in recent years the mortality rate decreased significantly thanks to the use of Levodopa, the duration and quality of life of patients increased significantly. And constant research in the field of the fight against the disease allow us to hope that in the near future finally will be invented a cure for Parkinson's disease.