The ventricles of the brain
In hollow formations called the ventricles of the brain, contains about 150 ml of liquid, which plays a huge role in the protection and normal functioning of the brain. Hydrocephalus, more commonly known as "
Form of the disease
- Common hydrocephalus. The volume of CSF increases not only in the ventricles but also the subarachnoid space of the brain.
- Internal hydrocephalus. Develops only in the ventricles and does not go beyond them.
- External hydrocephalus. Only occurs in the subarachnoid space, and ventricles in the concentrations of CSF are normal. This is the rare case of hydrocephalus, which almost never occurs in practice.
The symptoms of hydrocephalus
Because of the arrangement of the ventricles, the symptoms of hydrocephalus in its various forms may differ substantially.
Most common is the congenital form rarely occurs in adulthood. The development of hydrocephalus internal type is often a consequence of disorders of the Central nervous system, traumatic brain injury, viral or infectious diseases and brain tumors.
It might be a pathology in which the brain begins to "dry up" and occupies a smaller volume of the skull. Due to this, the empty space begins to fill the cerebrospinal fluid, compensating for a lack of volume.
The main symptoms are:
In fact, hydrocephalus is the malfunction of the Central nervous system, but often it occurs due to a failure in the processes of circulation and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid, the disease affects not only newborn babies, but also people of all ages. Do not forget also about the fact that hydrocephalus, as all diseases of the brain, is quite dangerous, so treat it with disdain is not worth it. Early treatment will minimize, maintain health and life.
The main symptoms are:
- The "shrinking" of the brain and fills the empty space of the skull by cerebrospinal fluid.
- Increase in blood pressure.
The most unpleasant in this case that the hydrocephalus of the external type almost does not identifies and can only be diagnosed in the survey after a traumatic brain injury or illness. If the internal hydrocephalus, the disease makes itself felt
The course and development of disease in adults
When closed and not communicating hydrocephalus interferes with the normal process of outflow of CSF from the closing of channels. Typically, this becomes a clot, a brain tumor or spike formed as a result of any inflammation. When blockage of the passageways in the brainthe ventricles is the selection of the proximal forms, and in violation of the outflow of fluid in the basal cisterns — distal.
Open hydrocephalus may result from a disruption of the normal absorption of fluid in the circulatory system in the area of the spinal cord. Often the reason for such violations is something serious, for example, the open hydrocephalus occurs when there is inflammation in the area of the ventricles or as a result of traumatic brain injury.
Hypersecretory hydrocephalus occurs simultaneously and the ventricles and subarachnoid space. Is caused by excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid, which, in turn, arises because of any tumors in the plexus of blood vessels.
Hydrocephalus in humans, the age can be divided into acute, subacute and chronic forms.
In acute disease the onset of symptoms occurs on the third day after its appearance, and in subacute is in a month. The chronic form involves asymptomatic disease for a long period of time, with short flashes of the onset of symptoms.
In total, all the symptoms of hydrocephalus are the standard set: it is nausea and vomiting, decreased visual acuity, drowsiness and apathy.
The course and development of the disease in newborns
In the case of a newborn child, the specificity of the disease is fully consistent with an adult. The main cause may be trauma to the skull during birth due to improper actions of the midwives or due to a too narrow birth canal.
Newborn normal volume of cerebrospinal fluid should not exceed 20 ml, and only to year, the volume begins to grow, elevating d 35 ml. However, hydrocephalus in the newborn can increase the liquid volume up to 1.5 L. Full update of CSF from a baby happens up to 8 times per day, which speaks for the speed of his education.
However, there are cases where hydrocephalus is not manifested after birth, while still in the period of embryonic development. Its cause may be a viral infection that has penetrated the placenta, as well as alcohol and tobacco, from which her mother did not refrain not only during pregnancy but also during its planning.
Because hydrocephalus occurs, the deformation of the skull of the newborn, in which the upper section of the skull significantly increased, forehead strongly projecting forward, and on the temples clearly visible blood vessels. Fontanels dilated and closed in a later age, and very noticeable displacement of the eyes under the eyebrows. If hydrocephalus occurred in the period of embryonic development, the births considerably difficult and occur with injuries, both for the baby and for the mother.
Quite often children with hydrocephalusarose prior to birth, do not survive. In that case, if the medical assistance was provided on time and of a child's life is not in danger, starts a number of measures to prevent the consequences. As hydrocephalus significantly affect the function of the Central nervous system, can develop tremor, impaired movement, convulsions, arrhythmia.
For the diagnosis of the disease is often resorted to the method of MRI, which allows the most accurate assessment of the patient's condition, to see the degree of damage and deformation of the ventricles and to appoint correct treatment.
The detection of hydrocephalus in its early phase there is a high probability of complete cure through therapy. However, if the disease progresses and is not amenable to medical treatment, require early surgical intervention. Thanks to modern medicine, there is a possibility to use special technology – ETV. During the operation in the ventricle, making the opening through which a regular excessive loss of CSF. Today it is one of the most effective methods, but it was receding into the past, giving place to the transactions with the neuroendoscope equipped with a microscopic camera. Thanks to this device can perform flow of the cerebrospinal fluid by the doctors, without establishing the unnecessary tubes and shunts.
As with any form of hydrocephalus, the patient should regularly visit a neurologist and undergo an examination, especially when you have the chronic form of this disease.