Concussion in children: symptoms, treatment and consequences
Concussion in children is quite common type of injury in Pediatrics. All this is associated with increased gaming activity and reduced sense of danger and fear in children. Although a concussion and is easy
What is a concussion?
In the structure of child injuries concussion of the brain takes up nearly 65%. According to the statistics of the peak of this form of closed head injury is age groups up to 5 years and after 14. Despite the high plasticity of the infantile brain in 30% of cases injuries were not treated properly, developing a specific complication that is called commotion syndrome.
Video transmission about the concussion:
The cause of trauma in children
The reasons that lead to concussion in children vary depending on age group. Head injury in children under one year is basically the fault of adults (oversight). Babies can get hurt when falling out of bed, changing table, stroller, allowing a child with the owner.
Once the baby begins to walk the main cause of a concussion – a fall from the height of its growth. Children who attend a kindergarten and school are most often injured in active games and physical education. Adolescents receive a head injury in the course of fighting, sports.
The factors that contribute to concussion in children:
- undeveloped sense of danger of a particular situation;
- the absence of fear, as children often do not realize what can happen;
- the imperfection of motor and coordinatory functions abilities of a child.
It is very important for parents to pay attention to such situations and not to forget that the child fell or bumped into something. If you will notice then at least some minimal changes in the status of the health of your baby, you should seek specialized medical help.
The symptoms and warning signs in children
The younger the child, the harder it is to recognize the concussion symptoms he had as small children all react negative impact of the generalized response.
Signs of concussion in infants:
- any loss of consciousness, even briefly (often parents don't notice symptoms, although it may be suspected if after the fall the baby cried immediately, but some time later), but most often impairment of consciousness does not happen;
- refusal after incident of food;
- constantly crying, or, conversely, behaves unnaturally quiet;
- when feeding, spits up frequently;
- temperature rise;
- insomnia or hypersomnia;
- twitching of limbs or chin.
The symptoms of concussion in older children:
- disturbance of consciousness onfor a short time after impact;
- the loss of the memories that have preserved the trauma (retrograde amnesia);
- dizziness and headache;
- nausea and retching, which does not facilitate the child's condition;
- increased weakness in the body;
- pale skin, cold sweat;
- slowing of mental processes and reactions of the child to others;
- temporary disorientation;
- disorders of the autonomic NS
Severity of concussion in children
Allocate 3 degrees of severity of concussion of brain tissue in children depending on the severity of the clinical signs:
- Mild – no impairment of consciousness, abnormal behaviors can be observed for 15-20 minutes after the strike. As a rule, such cases go away on their own even without treatment. But to show the child the doctor should be in 100% of cases, as you first need to exclude more severe varieties of injury.
- The average degree is also observed disturbances of consciousness, but signs of disorientation after the injury last more than 20 minutes.
- Severe degree is diagnosed when impairment of consciousness for any period of time, possible amnesia, pathological signs persist for several days after the impact.
Diagnosis of concussion
If you suspect a concussion appoint the following diagnostic procedures:
- inspection of a children's neurologist and pediatrician;
- General clinical blood and urine tests;
- if necessary, perform a lumbar puncture and examine the cerebrospinal fluid;
- examination by the ophthalmologist with the ocular fundus;
Principles of treatment and complications
All children with suspected concussion and the existence of TBI in anamnesis subject to compulsory hospitalization in the children's neurosurgery Department of a hospital for diagnosis, special treatment, protection regime and the subsequent monitoring of the condition.
Treatment of concussion includes:
- surgical treatment of wounds and abrasions on the head, if present;
- strict bed and a security mode;
- cerebral hypothermia (water bottle with ice to the head);
- drug therapy, which is aimed preventing and combating the most severe of the possible complications – cerebral edema, and to improve metabolic processes and circulation in the brain tissue (diuretics, vitamin and nootropic drugs, sedatives);
- symptomatic therapy (medication vomiting, hypnotics, analgesics).
In case of positive dynamics of the disease the child is discharged from hospital in 7-10 days in an effort to continue outpatient treatment and protection regime in2 weeks. The child, who suffered a concussion, shall be exempt from physical education classes for 2-3 months. Mandatory these children put on dispensary registration with periodic examinations by a pediatrician and child neurologist.
Among the possible complications of a concussion should be allocated commotion syndrome. As a rule, it develops in the absence of treatment and compliance with physician-recommended protection regime. Often the first signs can be noted after 6 months to 3 years after injury.
Children begin to complain of chronic dizziness, constant headache (sometimes develop and migraines), reduction in school performance, poor memory and decreased concentration, trouble sleeping. In parallel, it is possible to observe changes in the psycho-emotional sphere of the child, the apathy, emotional instability, and changing the basic character traits.
Video of what happens from a concussion:
To prevent the development of any complications, all cases of head injury in children in any case should not remain without medical attention. Only the timely diagnosis, proper treatment and mode will help a child's brain to recover without any consequences.