Forms of epilepsy: symptomatic, idiopathic and cryptogenic
Epilepsy is a brain disease that is characterized by the emergence of convulsions or other seizures (generalized or partial). Epilepsy affects approximately 1% of the world population, but it is believed that at least one epileptic seizure at least once life underwent a greater number of people. Very often the seizures occur in children that are associated with increased convulsive readiness of the child, easy excitability of the brain and generalized Central nervous system response to any stimulus.
The clinical picture of epilepsy as a disease is very diverse. There are several dozen types of epileptic seizures. Today, epilepsy is no longer considered as a single pathology, what is reflected in the classification of diseases adopted in 1989. In this article we consider the main types of epileptic seizures that most often occur in life.
Video transmission about epilepsy:
Main types of epilepsy
In modern medicine there are several types and types of epilepsy:
- Partial, or local, focal. It is characterized by a variety of seizures without loss of consciousness. This epilepsy may be idiopathic (when the cause is not known) and symptomatic (manifested in the form of symptom of another pathology).
- Generalized. It is characterized by seizures with loss of consciousness. Sometimes idiopathic, cryptogenic and symptomatic.
- Combined, when the seizures cannot be clearly classified as generalized or partial.
- Specific epileptic syndromes. For example, seizures with fever (febrile) which occurs when toxic, metabolic brain damage.
Thus, in the classification of epilepsy is based on the principle of localization of epileptic seizures (local or generalized), as well as their origin (symptomatic seizures with precisely known etiology, cryptogenic, when there's probable cause, but its precise role in the occurrence of seizures not proven, idiopathic, when according to all additional methods of research of structural pathological changes were identified, and a role in the etiology of a given genetic factor).
Any form of epilepsy is characterized by occurrence of various types of seizures. That seizures of cerebral origin, which occur with motor, sensory, psychiatric and autonomic disorders. All seizures are divided into generalized and partial, but there are some that can not be attributed to one of these groups. These seizures take 9-15%.
Signs of generalizedepilepsy:
- lack of awareness;
- expressed vegetative symptoms;
- both sides of the body are involved in the pathological process;
- the seizure may be accompanied by seizures, and can occur without them.
To convulsive generalized seizures include tonic-clonic and myoclonic. For non-convulsive – absence seizures.
Tonic-clonic seizures is the most common symptom of epilepsy. They start with bilateral muscle jerks (myoclonic seizures), but usually they go unnoticed. Then the patient loses consciousness, the pupils dilate, and begins the phase of tonic seizures, which cover all skeletal muscles. This phase lasts a few tens of seconds. Then comes the phase of clonic convulsions, which lasts 30-40 seconds. Then comes a coma or a dream. The latter may last from several minutes to several hours. In the phase of clonic convulsions, the patient developed hypersalivation, together with the bite of the language and gives a characteristic symptom of epilepsy – the red foam from his mouth. During such a seizure occurs asphyxia, which can cause harm to the patient if a seizure lasts too long, and during the convulsions high risk of serious injury.
Myoclonic seizures often occur in children. Can occur like loss of consciousness and without. Mioclonii can spread to the whole body or its individual parts, for example, only the facial muscles.
Absence seizures is a generalized non-convulsive seizures. This type of attacks is commonly observed in children. Consciousness is lost, the patient does not contact, but convulsions are not observed. The man just freezes for a while in a certain position, attack them is not felt. If absence seizures short-term, they long time can remain not recognized. Described clinical picture corresponds to a simple absence seizure, but there are complex, which are accompanied by different physical phenomena, for example, myoclonic jerking of various muscle groups, mumbling, lip smacking, fall with loss of postural tone.
Typically, when partial epileptic seizures the consciousness of the patient saved. The symptoms are consistent with a localization of the pathological lesion in
Certain types of partial epilepsy
Depending on the localization of the pathological focus in the brain the following types of partial epilepsy.
Temporal lobe epilepsy
This is the most common type of partial epilepsy. It is characterized by a great diversity of symptoms, as the temporal lobe of the brain responsible for hearing, smell, taste, speech perception, emotions, memory. As a rule, in historypatients who suffer from temporal lobe epilepsy, there are references to birth trauma, hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, resulting in the formed temporal sclerosis, which is the cause of the seizures.
Signs of temporal lobe epilepsy:
- taste disturbances (the unpleasant taste in the mouth);
- epileptic olfactory (sense of odor);
- auditory disorders (hearing loss, elementary auditory hallucinations);
- lack of understanding of reversed speech;
- vegetative components;
- short-term mental disorders.
Temporal lobe epilepsy is progressive in nature, often develop secondary generalized seizures.
Frontal lobe epilepsy
Symptomatic epilepsy is a complication of primary disease of the brain and occurs usually in adults.
Causes of symptomatic epilepsy:
- malignant and
This form of the disease is not associated with
The share of cryptogenic epilepsy falls 60% of cases. The diagnosis is established in the case when to determine the cause of seizures, according to additional methods of examination impossible, but the attacks meet the criteria for a symptomatic form of the disease. That is, have a clear character of a particular localization in the brain (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital lobe).
As a rule, this diagnosis is intermediate. Subsequent examination methods in the majority of patients cannot identify the specific type of the disease and to choose appropriate treatment.